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Geography has no boundaries!

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Presentation on theme: "Geography has no boundaries!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography has no boundaries!

2 Boundary: an invisible line marking the extent of a country’s territory
Physical boundaries: rivers, deserts, mountains, etc…

3 France and Germany are separated by the Rhine River


5 A long portion of Russia and China are separated by the Amur River


7 Chile is separated from other South American countries by the steep Andes Mountains

8 India and Pakistan are separated by religion
Cultural boundaries include language and religion India and Pakistan are separated by religion

9 Israel and Syria have religious issues and a nonspecified border area

10 5 Basic Shapes of Countries
-The shape of a country effects potential for communication and conflict with neighbors 5 Basic Shapes of Countries

11 -ideal compact state would be a circle, with the capital at the center
1. Compact Country -distance from center to any boundary has little variation -ideal compact state would be a circle, with the capital at the center -most beneficial to smaller states -gives them equal access to all regions

12 Belgium is an excellent example of a compact country
Brussels is very centrally located Belgium is ethnically divided into Wallonia and Flanders It is believed that the central location of the capital city along the border of these two territories has helped to keep the country together

13 Rwanda in central Africa is another fine example

14 -Spain is another example
-equal access to all locations? -centrally located capital?

15 -an otherwise compact country with a large projecting extension
2. Prorupted country: -an otherwise compact country with a large projecting extension Why do they have these projections? 1. Usually to get access to a resource (sea) 2. To keep other countries from sharing a common border


17 The Congo has a strip to the west to give it access to the Atlantic Ocean

18 -Namibia, also in western Africa, has the Caprivi Strip which connects the country to Zambia
WHY? Namibia is a former German colony, and the Germans gained access to rich mineral resources in Zambia during the colonial period

19 Afghanistan has a strip of land
Intended to keep the former USSR (now Tajikistan) from having a common border with Pakistan

20 -countries with a long, narrow shape
3. Elongated countries: -countries with a long, narrow shape -often because of physical barriers -results in isolation

21 Chile, in South America, is an example of an elongated country

22 Gambia -another example of an elongated country

23 -Gambia-a former English colony, has had a competitive boundary with Senegal, a former French colony
-from the colonial period -this European imposed boundary has separated families and ethnic groups

24 -includes several discontinuous fragments of territory
4. Fragmented countries: -includes several discontinuous fragments of territory -these territories may be separated by water Or by space

25 Indonesia

26 Sumatra Java -made up of about 13,677 separate islands -over 3000 miles in length -over 80% of population live on two islands

27 -Japan is fragmented into five major islands and several smaller ones

28 Angola

29 -Angola has the fragmented territory of Cabirda
-split as a result of Dem. Congo’s territory to the sea

30 How about North America, any fragmented countries there?
-Yep, the USA!!

31 -Alaska is separated from the rest of the country by space
Its nice those Canucks are So dog gone friendly

32 *fragmentation hinders communication and movement
Again, look at India This area is basically fragmented from the rest of the country -causes many problems with neighbors

33 -a country that completely surrounds another country
5. Perforated countries: -a country that completely surrounds another country -the surrounded country must depend almost entirely on its neighbor for imports and exports -the surrounded country can be very influenced by its neighbor

34 South Africa perferates Lesotho

35 -Lesotho is completely surrounded by South Africa
-How did the black leaders of Lesotho respond to the white minority rule in South Africa during apartheid? -not much they could do

36 Landlocked countries:
-countries that lack a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by other countries -landlocked countries are most common in Africa -14 of the 54 countries are landlocked -result of the colonial era when European powers set up coastal colonies and determined borders based on sea access

37 Landlocked states in southern Africa
Cooperation between landlocked countries in southern Africa has been complicated by racial patterns -during the colonial era, French and British developed rail lines to connect the inland mineral areas with the sea ports -now that they are gone, the new countries must depend on neighbors to import and export goods on the rail lines

38 Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland ship 90% of their exports on rail lines which go through South Africa -Dem. Congo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe also must transport most of their imports and exports through South Africa -these states disliked the racial discrimination which occurred in South Africa -but they could not sever ties with South Africa or they would have faced economic disaster

39 Zimbabwe Landlocked nation in southern Africa

40 -former British colony known as Southern Rhodesia
1965-white minority declare this an independent country -most other countries reduced or terminated trade with it

41 WHY? -but these trade restrictions had little effect
-because most of the rail lines ran through South Africa to their major ports And South Africa welcomed the opportunity to aid another minority white government

42 Rhodesia’s main rail line ran through black-ruled Botswana
-Botswana did not support the new white-ruled Rhodesia -the new government was forced to complete a new rail line directly to South Africa in 1974 -crosses rugged terrain

43 1977-the white-minority government of Rhodesia agreed to give blacks the right to vote
-blacks quickly gained government control In 1978, the country is officially recognized as Zimbabwe -the new government would rather not depend on the white-minority government of South Africa at this time

44 -attempted to ship on rail lines that did not go through South Africa
Zimbabwe tried to reduce dependence on South Africa -attempted to ship on rail lines that did not go through South Africa -the nearest non-South African port was Beira, in Mozambique

45 Beira -this rail line was insecure though because Mozambique was in a bloody civil war which lasted from 1976 to 1992

46 South Africa was sending aid to help the Mozambique rebels
-Zimbabwe sent aid along the rail corridor to keep it repaired -this was a difficult and expensive task -more distant non-South African seaports in Mozambique were much worse off that the Beira Line -as a result, more than half of Zimbabwe’s freight continued to go through South Africa

47 Landlocked nations are definitely at a disadvantage when it comes to importing and exporting goods

48 Types of Boundaries 1. Physical Boundaries
-mountains, deserts, water (oceans, rivers, lakes) 2. Cultural Boundaries -geometric (US-Canada: 49° N Latitude), religious, language


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