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SOME LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE 2007 FLOODS AND CYCLONE IN MOZAMBIQUE Presented by: Mathias Spaliviero Chief Technical Adviser, UN-HABITAT Mozambique Mariko.

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Presentation on theme: "SOME LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE 2007 FLOODS AND CYCLONE IN MOZAMBIQUE Presented by: Mathias Spaliviero Chief Technical Adviser, UN-HABITAT Mozambique Mariko."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOME LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE 2007 FLOODS AND CYCLONE IN MOZAMBIQUE Presented by: Mathias Spaliviero Chief Technical Adviser, UN-HABITAT Mozambique Mariko Sato, UN-HABITAT, Geneva United Nations Human Settlements Programme

2 Part 1 UN-HABITAT in Mozambique

3 Programme overview The goal of the recently developed UN-HABITAT country programme (2008-2010) is to contribute to slum upgrading and vulnerability reduction in Mozambique. For this purpose 3 thematic components were identified, namely: 1.Urban Governance and Vulnerability Reduction, including capacity building, participatory planning, implementation of demonstrative interventions and disaster risk reduction activities with focus on environmental management 2.Land and Housing, especially by supporting policy formulation and by carrying out strategic studies for improved regulatory frameworks 3.Slum Upgrading, Water and Sanitation with special focus on peri-urban areas The total planning budget: US$15M, out of which US$7M confirmed In the One UN framework, UN-HABITAT is in 3 Joint Programmes (JP’s): –JP for Support to Decentralization and Integrated Local Development –JP for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness –JP for Environmental Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change

4 Mozambique: a country vulnerable to natural disasters (Maps extracted from the National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change) Vulnerability to FloodsVulnerability to CyclonesVulnerability to Drought

5 Gathered experience on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) The aim of UN-HABITAT concerning DRR in Mozambique is to assist Government in reducing the vulnerability in the long-time period Activities implemented since 2002 Conduction of participatory land use and contingency planning sessions Production of didactic tools and guidelines Delivery of training at both central and local levels Undertaking of strategic studies for vulnerability reduction Preparation of analytical maps Implementation of key demonstrative interventions

6 Participatory land use and contingency planning

7 Didactic Tools and Guidelines

8 Didactic Tools and Guidelines (2)

9 Didactic Tools and Guidelines (3)

10 Didactic Tools and Guidelines (4)

11 Training at the local level

12 Strategic studies for vulnerability reduction Example: GEF Limpopo River Basin Project 4 National baseline studies Sub-regional baseline studies 3 sub-regional workshops Legal and policy recommendations for improving integrated flood management Regional flood forecasting and early warning Strategic Basin Action Plan

13 Analytical maps

14 Key demonstrative interventions

15 Part 2 2007 Floods and Cyclone in Mozambique

16 Zambezi Floods Intensive rainfall in the middle and lower river basin from January to mid-February 2007 Floods affected 4 provinces in Central Mozambique: Tete, Manica, Sofala & Zambézia Red alert issued on 4 February 2007 160,000 people displaced, of which 130,000 in temporary accommodation/resettlement areas Crops and infrastructure destroyed Cyclone Fávio Coastal areas of Inhambane and Sofala Provinces heavily affected on 22 February 2007 Torrential rains and wind speeds up to 220 km/h 134,000 people affected Destruction of houses and crops City of Vilanculos especially damaged The 2007 Floods and Cyclone: some background

17 Activation of the Shelter Cluster  On 16 February 2007 the UNCT activated the clusters and IFRC was initially appointed as the cluster lead of the Emergency Shelter Cluster  In mid-March 2007, UN-HABITAT took over the lead of the Cluster from IFRC with a view to strengthen  The cluster then merged with the Camp Coordination and Management Cluster which was then co-lead by UN-HABITAT and IOM;  From end of March up to July 2007, UN-HABITAT:  convened regular cluster meetings  supported coordination between Government, IOM and the Faculty of Architecture for undertaking plot demarcation operations in the field  was present to almost all UNCT/HCT meetings as well as to several Government meetings convened by the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC) As Cluster Lead, UN-HABITAT tried to delineate a joint intervention strategy among cluster members

18 UN-HABITAT Response (supported by IOM,UNDP) 1.Several coordination meetings organised around shelter issues 2.Support provided to Government for delineating more sustainable reconstruction and resettlement strategies 3.Set of flood risk and resettlement maps under preparation 4.Involvement and supervision of the Faculty of Architecture for supporting plot demarcation operations in the field and starting the establishment of land registry mechanisms 5.Assessments carried out concerning shelter, land tenure, basic and social services aspects 6.Participatory planning sessions held in 4 resettled communities in the Zambezi River valley 7.Vulnerability reduction measures identified in the affected areas and training & awareness material consequently produced 8.Activities for supporting the reconstruction process in the cyclone affected areas under implementation

19 Maps and satellite images downloaded from the internet ( Preliminary mapping results used in the field to orient discussions with the affected populations A set of maps is under compilation indicating areas at risk, floods dynamics, location of the resettlement areas, damaged infrastructure, etc Flood risk and resettlement maps

20 Flood risk and resettlement maps (2)

21 Monitoring the plot demarcation process A more participatory planning approach involving the affected communities was needed before starting the plot demarcation CEDH and IOM teams ensured that minimum spatial requirements were respected; however, it was too late to improve the overall spatial settings Resettlement has intrinsic social consequences; e.g. resettled families used to live in a rural environment have to adapt to an “urbanised” context In general, the resettlement process has been over-simplified without sufficient considerations for its long-term implications The strategy recently issued by the Government is trying to correct that, looking for the establishment of sustainable livelihood mechanisms, etc

22 Shelter assessment Reconstruction in resettlement areas is slow and often limited to tents and temporary houses Government initially promised building materials such as cement, corrugated iron sheets, nails, etc Lack of basic (especially water) and social services determined the return of communities to vulnerable locations For those who started rebuilding their houses, the preparation of baked bricks was the main adopted option, which is producing a clear environmental impact Government has recently reformulated its strategy, encouraging self-construction, taking advantage of local building materials and providing technical assistance “in-situ”

23 Several problems were observed: –A registry system was not set up during the emergency period when people were suddenly displaced –No clear criteria for distributing plots were defined after demarcation –No proper land registration mechanisms were in place once the plots have been allocated –In some areas there is not enough land for resettling all the affected families In some resettlement areas social conflicts linked to land issues were registered between “new” neighbours to overcome these difficulties it would have been important to ensure a longer presence of the Faculty of Architecture in the field, which proposed a land registration form Local leaders should be urgently capacitated in land registration operations Land tenure assessment

24 Participatory planning sessions Designing a proper “master plan” is one of the most important elements for ensuring the smooth development of any human settlement A comprehensive participatory planning process should have been conducted just after the emergency period Due to the lack of financial/technical means and the existing pressure for resettling people quickly, only rudimentary plans were prepared In one visited resettlement area a whole master plan was produced ”in situ” with the support of the UN-HABITAT team

25 The sessions focussed on: Assessing the communities understanding of the resettlement process Determining their current needs and expectations Providing guidance and suggestions for improving the spatial settings and associated social integration in the resettlement areas within an “urbanised” context Participatory planning sessions (2)

26 Participatory planning sessions (3)

27 Vulnerability reduction measures and training & awareness material Vulnerability reduction measures Participatory spatial planning and addressing land tenure issues as essential elements of the resettlement process Design of architectural solutions adapted to flood prone areas; elevated school model under construction in Gaza Province should be replicated in the Zambezi River delta Training and awareness material Use of existing UN-HABITAT material such as the manual “Living with Floods”, posters, River Game, didactic cartoon, etc Booklet of stories to enhance integration of the displaced families in the resettlement areas: how to provide a cultural identity? Manual for reducing constructions vulnerability in cyclone prone areas

28 Specific activities carried out in cyclone affected areas UN-HABITAT focussed on Vilanculos City Results of the damage assessment:  The most impacted structural elements were the roofing and other parts naturally exposed to the action of the winds such as windows, doors, etc  Roofs showing a greater slope or secured with ropes, stones, etc, were generally less affected  The use of corrugated iron sheets is to be avoided, unless reinforced and with no exposure to the wind  Traditional houses built using reed and straw were quite resistant due to their circular shape and the inherent “filtering” effect of the used materials  Buildings with poor foundations were completely destroyed; such effect was exacerbated by the sandy soil characterising this coastal area providing technical assistance to the City Council for designing architectural plans of low-cost houses with a reduced vulnerability to cyclones

29 Part 3 Lessons learned and thoughts for discussion

30 The implications of adequate shelter During the 2007 floods & cyclone in Mozambique, UN-HABITAT focussed on shelter, participatory planning, land tenure and vulnerability reduction Access to adequate shelter along with basic needs such as water and food - critical and tangible importance for vulnerable communities - displaced (in the case of the floods) or homeless (in the case of the cyclone) people If considered as part of a social and organisational system which starts from the household, this includes having access to:  basic services, such as water and sanitation  social services, in particular school and health services  infrastructure, such as roads and electricity  Livelihood - market, economic opportunities and land tenure as mean of subsistence Hence, ensuring adequate shelter is more complex than just distributing non-food items; it is the result of a long-term strategic thinking process also called planning process The question is: “when should this planning process start once a natural disaster has occurred ?”

31 UN-HABITAT advised that the planning process for addressing long- term shelter needs should start immediately. This corresponds to the early recovery period during which people are still sensitive and aware of their vulnerability; if addressed with wisdom, this situation could catalyse innovative and more sustainable development dynamics paying special attention to disaster preparedness and vulnerability reduction The priority of the Government of Mozambique was concurred with this philosophy However, these arguments were generally given little importance by the other UN partners involved, especially because of the inherent complexity around shelter issues Shelter early recovery should not be about building transitional houses, instead minimum conditions should be created for facilitating self-help construction mechanisms within adequate spatial and social settings, in which basic and social services & infrastructure are planned Early Recovery is the critical for shelter

32 In particular, the participatory planning approach where community, local authorities and key stakeholders are represented, and which involves open discussions and mutual commitments, can help a lot in dissipating the mentioned complexity around shelter and work as social integration mechanism This is indeed a necessary process for ensuring the sustainable development of any human settlements; it is even more important when it concerns a community which has been exposed to a natural hazard and has to restart a living in a much modified context Due to the limited funds available, only preliminary but indispensable results were obtained; further support is urgently needed for addressing these issues, especially within the current recovery The importance of participatory planning

33 Challenges and additional considerations The overall response concerning shelter has been weak up to now While the idea of clusters is good in essence, it should not represent a parallel structure to the Government’s own organisation There was (and still is) a weak interest by UN Agencies, donor communities, other than UN-HABITAT and UNDP in early recovery issues, despite expressed as a clear Government’s priority Food distributions delayed the resettlements and recovery process – emergency aid impeding early recovery? The consequences of the lack of planning and resources are visible today in the resettlement areas: the reconstruction process is delayed; people are frustrated and return to vulnerable areas, etc Reports indicate that the 2007 events registered less damage and there was more coordination compared to those occurred in 2000 and 2001… even if this is partially true, it should be noted that the latter events were much bigger in size

34 Comparison of the 2001 and 2007 flood limits


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