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Macromolecules Standard Qualitative Tests and Testing Your Own Food.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules Standard Qualitative Tests and Testing Your Own Food."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules Standard Qualitative Tests and Testing Your Own Food

2 Video Intro: Digestion You Tube - Digestion of Carbos, Fats, and ProteinsYou Tube - Digestion of Carbos, Fats, and Proteins

3 Polysaccharide Disaccharide (sucrose) Monosaccharide (glucose)

4 Two Common Monosaccharides

5 Disaccharide

6 What are Carbohydrates I eat? USED FOR ENERGY STORAGE

7 Fiber: a polysaccharide cellulose

8 Hydrolysis “break with water” to make monomers

9 Also need digestive enzymes Enzymes-and-Digestion.htm Gastric Secretion Animation Mouth – amylase Stomach –pepsin Small intestine – pancreatic enzymes, lactase

10 What disaccharide is in beer? maltose

11 Qualitative Detecting if a substance is present You don’t know how much

12 Goggles and Apron Chemicals are caustic to your eyes Iodine stains

13 When it asks for… Dropper FullJust squeeze to fill dropper and release Exact amounts are not important 1 dropper full = drops

14 Pasteur Pipets

15 NEVER EVER NEVER, hold a filled pipet upside down…or hold on its side… You contaminate the bulb

16 Activity C: For 5mL and 10 mL Hydrochloric acid sucrose

17 Controls Positive Control Absolutely expect to see the result Use the substance (starch, glucose, etc.) Negative Control Absolutely expect to NOT see the result (may use distilled water )

18 Lab Objective: Describe the test that indicates the presence of most small sugars.

19 Recording Benedict’s Results - blue no sugar + blue/green trace ++ green little sugar +++ yellow some sugar ++++ orange/red much sugar

20 Benedict’s Sugar Test

21

22 Lab Objectives: Describe the test that indicates the presence of starch. IODINE IS POISONOUS!!!

23 Iodine Test negative positive

24 Lab Objective: Define hydrolysis and give an example of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. ANIMATION LINKS: Digestion in the Stomach-You Tube Digestion in the Stomach-You Tube Hydrolysing starch

25 Lab Objective: Give examples of the formation/ breakdown of a: monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide

26 Lab Objective: Name the monosaccharide components of sucrose and starch.

27 Simple Sugars Called monosaccharides primary function = energy Your SAMPLE will be glucose

28 Disaccharide Double Sugar Combined simple sugars YOUR SAMPLE WILL BE SUCROSE

29 Now Let’s Demonstrate how Digestion Might Work Click Here Howstuffworks "The Digestive System"Howstuffworks "The Digestive System"

30 Tube 1- blue (-) still sucrose, a disaccharide Tube 2- heat broke bonds –so tested orange (+) for glucose 2 1

31 Tube 3 Negative for because it is starch (a polysaccharide) STARCH

32 Polysaccharides Shorter sugars link together to form complex sugars Your starch sample will be POTATO STARCH

33 glucose

34 Tube 4 Starch Not heated – so it would be (+) for iodine, blue- black

35 Tube 5 Heated 5 minutes – added Benedicts Starch may just start to break down, so just a little (+) for glucose or (-) starch did not break down yet here

36 Tube 6 Heated 5 minutes added Iodine Brown – somewhat broken down – so just partially (+) for starch Tube 6

37 Tube 7 Heated 15 minutes Added Benedicts (for a glucose test) Starch is broken down to its monomers, glucose Tube 7

38 Tube 8 Heated 15 minutes – Tested for starch Negative, because it is broken down to glucose TUBE 8

39 Explain Benedict’s test on sucrose AT first sucrose is (-) with Benedicts because it is a disaccharide. After hydrolysis (heating and acid), the monosaccharide glucose is (+)

40 Explain the iodine test with starch At first starch is (+) with iodine. After hydrolysis, the starch breaks down to glucose and tests (-) with iodine.

41 Explain Benedicts with starch. At first starch would be (-) for it is not glucose, but is a polysaccharide. After hydrolysis, glucose is formed when the bonds break.

42 Why does hydrolysis of starch take longer than of sucrose? Starch is a polysaccharide, more bonds to break. Sucrose is a disaccharide.

43 Cellulose

44 Dehydration Synthesis take out water to make macromolecule

45 Complex Carbohydrates Starch -storage in plants Cellulose -fiber Glycogen-storage in animals

46 SAFETY IF A SOLID, cut into little pieces Rinse razor blades under water, do not wipe across the blade Put used blades at the end of the period in the “used beaker” on the cart

47 TESTING FOR FATS AND PROTEINS 1. Wear goggles and aprons. 2. One set-up per pair. 3. Reference sheets on lab tables. 4. Limitations of this lab: do not know how much of the sample you have.

48 BEFORE YOU BEGIN THE LAB of Testing for Fats and Proteins Read Lipids Intro p. 9 and answer the questions to the left (3) Read Proteins Intro p. 10 and answer the questions to the right (3)

49 Fat Test with Brown Paper Translucent (light can go through) = + fat test

50 Can aid drying of brown paper

51 PROTEIN SAMPLE Egg albumin = egg white

52 Protein Test with Biuret’s

53 Biuret’s is especially caustic to skin and membranes. If you get it on you, wash it immediately.

54 Describe the Protein Test Biuret’s is what color? Blue In the presence of a protein it will turn what color? purple

55 Biurets turns purple in the presence of protein Neg. Lots Slight

56 Put waste chemicals in waste container WASTE

57 Separation of Butter Clarification is removing lipid part (water insoluble) from non- lipid part (water-soluble). Why do it? Clarifying butter raises the smoke point from 250 o F to 350 o F.

58 Emulsion Oil droplets (micelles) are formed in water- soluble substances Oil is non-water- soluble

59 Heat breaks up the Emulsion- separates the butter Ghee A common food fat in India, ghee is produced from boiled buffalo milk. Its manufacture is similar to that of butter oil. It can be kept for months, or years, without refrigeration, and has a more intense flavor than butter or butter oil.

60 Clarified Butter (Ghee) separated into: Protein foam on top skimmed off Next layer = clarified butter Bottom layer = milk solids - flavor

61 BRING IN FOODS TO TEST We can grind, chop, dilute them to make them dissolve in water We will run all the tests on them

62 While you Wait… Do exercises from the handouts: –Lipid Crossword –Exercise 6 –Exercise 7


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