What are Carbohydrates I eat? USED FOR ENERGY STORAGE
Fiber: a polysaccharide cellulose
Hydrolysis “break with water” to make monomers
Also need digestive enzymes Enzymes-and-Digestion.htm Gastric Secretion Animation Mouth – amylase Stomach –pepsin Small intestine – pancreatic enzymes, lactase
What disaccharide is in beer? maltose
Qualitative Detecting if a substance is present You don’t know how much
Goggles and Apron Chemicals are caustic to your eyes Iodine stains
When it asks for… Dropper FullJust squeeze to fill dropper and release Exact amounts are not important 1 dropper full = drops
NEVER EVER NEVER, hold a filled pipet upside down…or hold on its side… You contaminate the bulb
Activity C: For 5mL and 10 mL Hydrochloric acid sucrose
Controls Positive Control Absolutely expect to see the result Use the substance (starch, glucose, etc.) Negative Control Absolutely expect to NOT see the result (may use distilled water )
Lab Objective: Describe the test that indicates the presence of most small sugars.
Recording Benedict’s Results - blue no sugar + blue/green trace ++ green little sugar +++ yellow some sugar ++++ orange/red much sugar
Benedict’s Sugar Test
Lab Objectives: Describe the test that indicates the presence of starch. IODINE IS POISONOUS!!!
Iodine Test negative positive
Lab Objective: Define hydrolysis and give an example of the hydrolysis of carbohydrates. ANIMATION LINKS: Digestion in the Stomach-You Tube Digestion in the Stomach-You Tube Hydrolysing starch
Lab Objective: Give examples of the formation/ breakdown of a: monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide
Lab Objective: Name the monosaccharide components of sucrose and starch.
Simple Sugars Called monosaccharides primary function = energy Your SAMPLE will be glucose
Disaccharide Double Sugar Combined simple sugars YOUR SAMPLE WILL BE SUCROSE
Now Let’s Demonstrate how Digestion Might Work Click Here Howstuffworks "The Digestive System"Howstuffworks "The Digestive System"
Tube 1- blue (-) still sucrose, a disaccharide Tube 2- heat broke bonds –so tested orange (+) for glucose 2 1
Tube 3 Negative for because it is starch (a polysaccharide) STARCH
Polysaccharides Shorter sugars link together to form complex sugars Your starch sample will be POTATO STARCH
Tube 4 Starch Not heated – so it would be (+) for iodine, blue- black
Tube 5 Heated 5 minutes – added Benedicts Starch may just start to break down, so just a little (+) for glucose or (-) starch did not break down yet here
Tube 6 Heated 5 minutes added Iodine Brown – somewhat broken down – so just partially (+) for starch Tube 6
Tube 7 Heated 15 minutes Added Benedicts (for a glucose test) Starch is broken down to its monomers, glucose Tube 7
Tube 8 Heated 15 minutes – Tested for starch Negative, because it is broken down to glucose TUBE 8
Explain Benedict’s test on sucrose AT first sucrose is (-) with Benedicts because it is a disaccharide. After hydrolysis (heating and acid), the monosaccharide glucose is (+)
Explain the iodine test with starch At first starch is (+) with iodine. After hydrolysis, the starch breaks down to glucose and tests (-) with iodine.
Explain Benedicts with starch. At first starch would be (-) for it is not glucose, but is a polysaccharide. After hydrolysis, glucose is formed when the bonds break.
Why does hydrolysis of starch take longer than of sucrose? Starch is a polysaccharide, more bonds to break. Sucrose is a disaccharide.
Dehydration Synthesis take out water to make macromolecule
Complex Carbohydrates Starch -storage in plants Cellulose -fiber Glycogen-storage in animals
SAFETY IF A SOLID, cut into little pieces Rinse razor blades under water, do not wipe across the blade Put used blades at the end of the period in the “used beaker” on the cart
TESTING FOR FATS AND PROTEINS 1. Wear goggles and aprons. 2. One set-up per pair. 3. Reference sheets on lab tables. 4. Limitations of this lab: do not know how much of the sample you have.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN THE LAB of Testing for Fats and Proteins Read Lipids Intro p. 9 and answer the questions to the left (3) Read Proteins Intro p. 10 and answer the questions to the right (3)
Fat Test with Brown Paper Translucent (light can go through) = + fat test
Can aid drying of brown paper
PROTEIN SAMPLE Egg albumin = egg white
Protein Test with Biuret’s
Biuret’s is especially caustic to skin and membranes. If you get it on you, wash it immediately.
Describe the Protein Test Biuret’s is what color? Blue In the presence of a protein it will turn what color? purple
Biurets turns purple in the presence of protein Neg. Lots Slight
Put waste chemicals in waste container WASTE
Separation of Butter Clarification is removing lipid part (water insoluble) from non- lipid part (water-soluble). Why do it? Clarifying butter raises the smoke point from 250 o F to 350 o F.
Emulsion Oil droplets (micelles) are formed in water- soluble substances Oil is non-water- soluble
Heat breaks up the Emulsion- separates the butter Ghee A common food fat in India, ghee is produced from boiled buffalo milk. Its manufacture is similar to that of butter oil. It can be kept for months, or years, without refrigeration, and has a more intense flavor than butter or butter oil.
Clarified Butter (Ghee) separated into: Protein foam on top skimmed off Next layer = clarified butter Bottom layer = milk solids - flavor
BRING IN FOODS TO TEST We can grind, chop, dilute them to make them dissolve in water We will run all the tests on them
While you Wait… Do exercises from the handouts: –Lipid Crossword –Exercise 6 –Exercise 7