Presentation on theme: "Cells. What is a cell? A cell is the smallest functional unit of life (it is the smallest, most simple thing that can still be considered living) It is."— Presentation transcript:
What is a cell? A cell is the smallest functional unit of life (it is the smallest, most simple thing that can still be considered living) It is basis for “organization”
Structural Organization Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell
The Invention of the Microscope Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – Mid 1600s – Made 1 st microscope – Magnification of 270x – Observed pond water
Who discovered the cell? 1665 Robert Hooke used a microscope to look at cork. The cork looked like little boxes under the microscope. Fun fact: Hooke used the word “cells” because the boxes he saw under the microscope reminded him of cells that monks lived in. This is what cells look like under a microscope
Who discovered the cell? 1830s Matthias Schleiden determines that all plants are made up of cells. Theodor Schwann determines all animals are made up of cells Rudolf Virchow says that all cells must come from other cells. This all lead up to The Cell Theory
Cell Theory The cell theory has 3 parts: 1.All living things are made up of cells. 2.The cell is the basic organizational unit of all living things. 3.Cells must come from other cells.
The Parts of a Cell Nucleus Mitochondria Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Vacuoles Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles
Cell parts = organelles
Nucleus The “brain” of the cell Directs cell activities Where genetic information is stored – DNA Genes Chromosomes Nucleus
Mitochondria The “powerhouse” of the cell Releases energy for the cell to use Mitochondria
Ribosomes Make protein Ribosomes
Vacuoles Used for storage Like containers that you use to store leftovers in the fridge Vacuole
Golgi Bodies Packages proteins (and other materials) into vesicles so they can be “shipped” to other parts of the cell Golgi Bodies
Cytoplasm Like gelatin Surrounds all of the organelles Can also be called the cytoskeleton Cytoplasm
Cell membrane The covering of the cell Allows certain materials to enter or leave the cell. Cell Membrane
There are 2 types of cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic 1 st kind of cell Very simple No internal organelles (except ribosomes) All bacteria fit into this category
Eukaryotic Last to evolve More complex Have organelles 2 types of eukaryotic cells – Plant cells – Animal cells
Organelles Only Found in Plant Cells Cell wall Chloroplast Cell Wall
Plants don’t have skeletons to hold them up, so each cell has a thick cell wall that provides support. Cell wall contains cellulose This is what you hear snapping/crunching when you chew lettuce or raw green beans.
Humans don’t have chloroplasts. If they did, they would be green! Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a pigment that traps sunlight This is the part of the plant that converts sunlight to chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
Common Plant and Animal Cell Organelles Animal Cell Plant Cell
Cell Membrane Nucleus Ribosome Golgi Body Vacuole Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Mitochondrion Common Plant and Animal Cell Organelles Animal CellPlant Cell
Differences Between Plant and Animal Cells Cell Wall Chloroplast Larger Vacuole Plant CellAnimal Cell
Are All Cells the Same Shape?
No! Each cell has a different shape that fits what its job is.
Are All Cells the Same Shape? Each cell has a different shape that fits what its job is.
Metabolism Metabolism is how fast a cell can get materials in, break them down and build new stuff out of it… – Anabolism cells building things (like protein) – Catabolism cells breaking things down (the food you eat) Anabolism + Catabolism = Metabolism
Review Time! Let’s see what you learned today…
Compare and Contrast the Organelles Found in Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells PlantsAnimals Both
Compare and Contrast the Organelles Found in Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells PlantsAnimals Both Cell Wall Chloroplasts Nucleus ER Golgi Body Mitochondria Ribosomes Vacuoles Cell membrane
How Do Cells Play a Role in Structural Organization?
Organism Organ System Organ Tissue Cell
Why do plant cells need a larger vacuole than animal cells?
Because plants make their own food from sunlight. Sunlight is not available 24-7, so the plant has to be able to store lots of food in case it does not get sunlight for awhile.
Is this a prokaryotic or a eukaryotic cell? Cell Membrane Cell Wall Large Vacuole Chloroplast
Is this a prokaryotic or a eukaryotic cell? Cell Membrane Cell Wall Large Vacuole Chloroplast Eukaryotic cell – it has organelles
Is E. coil bacteria a prokaryotic cell or a eukaryotic cell?
Prokaryotic– it has no organelles
What type of cell is this? Cell Membrane Cell Wall Large Vacuole Chloroplast
What type of cell is this? Cell Membrane Cell Wall Large Vacuole Chloroplast PLANT CELL
Can you tell what each organelle does? Nucleus- Ribosome- Chloroplast- Mitochondria- Endoplasmic Reticulum- Vacuole- Golgi Apparatus-
Can you tell what each organelle does? Nucleus- controls the cell’s activities Ribosome- makes protein Chloroplast- makes sunlight into food Mitochondria- makes energy Endoplasmic Reticulum- folds proteins Vacuole- stores stuff Golgi Apparatus- packages and ships stuff