Presentation on theme: "The Spelling Scholar: Word Study as the Foundation of Reading Eileen Mattmann Rosanne Cowan www.spellingscholar.com “Spelling is the foundation of reading."— Presentation transcript:
The Spelling Scholar: Word Study as the Foundation of Reading Eileen Mattmann Rosanne Cowan “Spelling is the foundation of reading and the greatest ornament of writing.” –Noah Webster Agenda Background Common Core Standards Vowel Concepts/Teaching Ideas Alphabetic Layer Pattern Layer Meaning Layer Other Vowel Stories Questions?
Word Study Makes a Difference Explicit word study instruction and inquiry learning enhance acquisition of reading. Word structure and analysis helps build fluency (alphabetic and pattern layers) Understanding affixes and roots contributes to vocabulary growth (pattern and meaning layers) Fluency and vocabulary increase comprehension.
How Predictable is Spelling? Three Layers Alphabetic Layer Sound/letter relationship Pattern Layer Spelling patterns, rules and inflected endings Meaning Layer Homophones, contractions, affixes, Greek and Latin word parts, word origins
Moving from Alphabetic to Meaning Alphabetic Layer- sound/letter correspondence Pattern Layer- base words and endings, vowel teams, position, rules Meaning Layer- contractions, homophones, homonyms, homographs, roots and affixes, word origins jumpt, stade, wouldent
Great Vowel Shift Move from Middle English to Modern English ( ) Blending of French and English Vowels sounded as they do in the romance languages Spellings stayed the same as in Middle English Vowel sounds start to shift at different rates Some spellings changed, some didn’t Printing press instrumental in locking in spellings Vowel sounds constantly changing-dependent on area of country
Vowel Spellings “ough” combination - 10 pronunciations cough, through, dough, bough, slough (slaw, sluff) Each standardized at a different time during the Great Vowel Shift, causing the confusion that we have today. Long /e/ - 23 different spellings eat, debris, fleet, field, happy, key, deceit, people, mete rarely said incorrectly, and occurs early in children’s speech Short /i/ - 33 different spellings hit, myth, sieve, busy, building, pretty more difficult for children and non-native speakers to master the short "i" sound.
Alphabetic Layer-Common Core Kindergarten Rhyming words, blending onsets and rimes, isolate and pronounce C-V-C pattern, spell simple words phonetically Grade 1 Long and short vowels, every syllable has a vowel Spell untaught words phonetically
Pattern Layer-Common Core Kindergarten Identify long and short vowels -2 vowels vs. 1 vowel Grade 1 Know final “e” and common long vowel letter teams, open and closed syllables, every syllable has a vowel, spell untaught words phonetically Identify root word to add ending Grade 2 Know spelling/sound correspondences for common vowel teams Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
Pattern Layer-Common Core Grade 3 Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness). Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns). Recognize word structure in reading, apply it in writing (suffix rules, meaningful word parts). Grade 4-6 Spell correctly.
Meaning Layer-Common Core Grade 2 Use an apostrophe to form contractions. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. (Gr. 1-2) (Homophones) Grade 4-6 Homophones (bare, bear; meddle, medal) Word origin Spell grade appropriate words correctly
Alphabetic Layer Concepts Introducing the “magical” vowels Vowels make you keep your mouth open Vowels and word families
Vowels and Word Families
Alphabetic Layer Concepts Word Builder Cards Identifying long and short vowel sounds- Long and Short of It Game Long vowels in the alphabetic layer “o” and “i” can be long with one vowel in word (gold, mild, find) b
Pattern Layer Concepts Long or short vowel? tch, ch dge, ge
Open Word Sorts: Inquiry Lesson c/ck/k The open sort- What do you notice? How should we group? Let’s make a rule. comicpackseektrick atticpanicspeaklook asktuckblanksoak ducktrafficmusicmilk
Completed Sort Words end in “ck”Words end in “c”Words end in “k” packcomicseek trickatticpeak duckpanicsoak musiclook What about words like make, trunk, ask, and milk? What about picnic, arctic, and jacket?
Pattern Layer Concepts Open and Closed Syllables Rabbit Rule
Pattern Layer Concepts Common vowel teams (long vowel sounds) Ai, a-silent e, ay Ee, ea i-silent e Oa, o-silent e ue, ew, u-silent e
“I” Before “E” When sounding like ē, it’s i before e, Except after c, And when sounding like ā as in neighbor, ī as in height, or ĭ as in foreign.
“I Before E”
Other Vowel Teams Vowel pairs(oy/oi)
Vowel pairs (au/aw/al) Other Vowel Teams
Another Vowel Pair Vowel pair (au/aw)
Vowel Pair Vowel pairs (ou/ow)
Powerful Silent “e” Makes a long vowel CVCe (make) Words don’t end in “i” or “u” (lie, blue) Clarifies meaning, pleas/please CVCCe Makes “c” and “g” soft, dance, prince, cringe, badge Reading-Watch for 2 consonants before the silent e. Changes the sound of the last consonant (tens/tense) Words that end with /v/ give, have, love, givving/giving, havving/having, lovving/loving Provides a needed vowel in a syllable
“The Spelling Scholar” Unit: Discovery and Discussion title single level mammal civil tickle maple channel pencil handle simple camel “le”“el”“al” “il”
Pattern Layer Concepts Inflected endings Suffixes that don’t change the meaning of the base word or the part of speech Nouns-plural (desks, beaches) Verbs-tenses (plays, played, playing) Adjectives-comparative/superlative (fancy, fancier, fanciest) Contained in the dictionary base word entry
Find the Base Word hopping vs. hoping Rule or V-C
Silent “e:” Find the Base Word What happens when we want to add a suffix to a base word that ends in silent “e?” pile + ed = piledmule + ish = mulishdive + ing = divingbroke + en = broken What happens if we add a suffix that begins with a consonant to a base word that ends in silent “e?” wire + less = wirelesshuge + ly = hugelycare + ful = careful
Drop “e”Keep “e” huge + lyseparate + lysurprise + ing admire + ationachieve + mentcommute + er delete + edamuse + mentdouble + ing bubble + ingtrouble + edengage + ment Drop “e”Keep “e” separatelyhugely admirationachievement deletedamusement commuterengagement
Inflected Endings Y to I
Pattern Layer Concepts Other Spellings for Vowels
Pattern Layer Concepts e, i, y: softens “c” and “g”
Pattern Layer Concepts
Meaning Layer Concepts Word Origin-Words from French A long a sound at the end of a word can be spelled: with et as in cachet, crochet, and croquet. A long e sound at the end of a word: ie as in prairie and sortie. Words ending with an \zh\ sound: spelled age as in collage, mirage, dressage, garage, barrage, camouflage, entourage, and fuselage. A \k\ sound at the end of a word is often spelled que as in mystique, boutique, and physique. Words from Greek Spell short i with “y” as in acronym, calypso, cryptic, cynical, dyslexia, homonym, Olympian, polymer, symbiosis, synonym, synopsis, and syntax.
More Thinking Strategies as Stories England always doubles (labeled vs. labelled) Mnemonics (ight, ould, aught, ought) Words with short U, spelled with O (love, come) luve/love, cume/come
Websites (build word lists) (list of roots and meanings) https://www.msu.edu/~defores1/gre/roots/gre_rts_afx2.htm (list of roots and meanings) https://www.msu.edu/~defores1/gre/roots/gre_rts_afx2.htm General Student Practice Sites (practice games for your list or theirs) (more challenging games; your list or theirs, very easy to difficult) (word family work) (many games) (many games) (word sorts provided or make your own)
“When children are taught to think about language, it allows them to learn HOW to spell, not just memorize words.” (Moats, 2009)
Resources Developmental-Spelling Research: A systematic Imperative, Marcia Invernizzi, Latisha Hayes, Reading Research Quarterly, 2004 How Spelling Supports Reading, Louisa Moats, American Educator, How Words Cast Their Spell, Malatesha R. Joshi, et.al., American Educator, Questions Teachers Ask About Spelling, Shane Templeton, Darrell Morris, Reading Research Quarterly, 1999 Why Spelling is Important and How to Teach It Effectively, V. Berninger & M. Fayol, Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development, 2008 Word Study Instruction in the K-2 Classroom, Cheryl Williams, et.al., The Reading Teacher, April 2009