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World Civilizations to 1600s Chapter 6 Africa, Early History to 1000 C.E.

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Presentation on theme: "World Civilizations to 1600s Chapter 6 Africa, Early History to 1000 C.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Civilizations to 1600s Chapter 6 Africa, Early History to 1000 C.E.


3 Civilization In the narrow sense: has writing, urban centers, uses metals, hierarchy, central authority In a broader sense: can be associated with the sophistication of a people’s intellectual, cultural, and artistic traditions There are many societies that could be considered “civilized” in this broader sense

4 Africa 1/5 of earth’s land mass 31/2 the size of continental U.S. 12 million square miles Less than 10% is covered by rainforests, and those are in West Africa In the north and south, 2 deserts: the Sahara and the Kalahari Just north and south of equator are savannas or grasslands Tropical forests along equator

5 Large rivers: Nile, Niger, Congo, & Zambezi High mountains: Kilimanjaro in the east and Mt. Cameroun in the west It is thought man originated in Africa because of fossil remains False image, “the Dark Continent”  They have technology, crops, ideas, & material goods received from many areas

6 Mt. Kilimanjaro

7 Mt. Cameroun

8 Climate changes caused migration The Sahara used to receive up to 50% more rain than it gets today; temperatures rose and rainfall decreased about 9,000 years ago By 3000 B.C.E droughts had created a desert and migrations began Initially, people were hunter/gatherers Agriculture reached them by 3000 B.C.E. and populations increased

9 Sahara

10 It is thought agriculture came in from the Near East because crops grown were not native: millet and sorghum New crops from S.E. Asia introduced: rice and bananas New crops from the Americas introduced: maize and manioc Livestock arrived from new areas: cattle and the camel from Asia, and horses from W. Asia

11 Camel played an important role in opening up Africa  Its feet were good for walking in the sand of the desert  It could consume large amounts of water and then do without for long periods  Camels increased the efficiency of the trans- Saharan trade and contributed to the growth of major trading centers

12 Nomadic people also raised other livestock like goats and wandered to find forage Livestock was limited by the tse-tse fly which brought sleeping sickness to many animals Iron came in from W. Asia by the last 1000 years B.C.E.; iron tools replaced stone ones Bronze reached Africa by 1000 C.E.

13 Migrations Migrations of people and the diffusion of agriculture and iron are probably linked to the desiccation or desertification of the Sahara Bantu people of eastern Nigeria began to move south throughout sub-Saharan Africa and are traced through the spread of their language, Proto-Bantu Bantus were successful in overcoming others they encountered as they migrated; had iron weapons

14 Bantus reached today’s South Africa by the 13 th century C.E. Bantus:  Depended on farming & fishing  Villages developed around kinship groups  Council of elders ruled  Practiced animism  Asked ancestors for help  Spread culture and it then blended with other cultures

15 Kingdom of the Kush 1000 B.C.E. – 300 C.E. Smaller yet important society appearing at the southern end of the Nile River Influenced by the Egyptians Skilled in the use of iron Both their writing and their political systems were similar to the Egyptian Had extensive trade routes to the west Produced fine pottery and jewelry Began to decline in 100 C.E. Taken over by Axum to the south in 300 C.E. Their influences still felt in Ethiopia

16 Kingdom of the Kush

17 Axum In Ethiopian highlands Trading state Christian Population was a mix of Arab settlers from Yemen, people of Eritrea and the Ethiopian highlands Existed since the 1 st century C.E. Was an elephant and ivory market in its port of Andulis

18 Axum

19 Cosmopolitan urban center Located close to Indian trade routes that gave access to goods and ideas from India, East Indies, Iran, Arabia, East African coast, & the Roman Mediterranean Traded in obsidian, slaves, & gold dust 200 C.E. Axum was involved in wars on Arabian peninsula Became dominant power and controlled areas in southern Arabia - Yemen

20 King of Axum converted to Christianity in 350 C.E. and the religion, churches, and monasteries spread

21 Ghana Peoples of the savanna Great trade area Trades salt for gold with those in Niger and Senegal and then sent the gold north to markets in North Africa Along these trade routes in the 8 th century, the states of Takur, Ghana, Gao, and Kanem were established Ghana received manufactured goods in return for gold

22 Ghana grew and controlled other states Kumbi Saleh, capital, divided into 2 areas 6 miles apart  One was for the king, his court, the houses of his people, shrines, and worship centers  The other was for long distance Muslim traders, religious leaders, scholars, mosques, and houses; this area was for Muslims

23 It was a powerful, well-organized kingdom dominated by a royal family Its influence spread into the Sahara until the coming of the Almorvids (Muslims) who began to take control of the gold trade of the Sahara Almorvids conquered Ghana in 1076 Ghana still existed but was greatly weakened

24 The coming of Islam broke down established kingdoms Eventually, the Kingdom of Mali took hold

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