Presentation on theme: "Science The Story you don’t know!!! Bachelor of Science (Hons.) Chemistry with Materials Mark Anthony Callus 2012."— Presentation transcript:
Science The Story you don’t know!!! Bachelor of Science (Hons.) Chemistry with Materials Mark Anthony Callus 2012
What is Science? “...refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained” Aristotle, ca. 4th century BC "Nicomachean Ethics Book VI, and Metaphysics Book I" Physics ChemistryBiology
Chemistry “... the study of matter and the changes it undergoes. ” Chang, Raymond (1998). Chemistry, 6th Ed.. New York: McGraw Hill. But did you know that: Chemistry was first called Alchemy from c. 330BC to 1661.  Then Chymistry from 1661 to 1730.   Strathern, P. (2000). Mendeleyev’s Dream – the Quest for the Elements. New York: Berkley Books.  Boyle, Robert (1661). The Sceptical Chymist. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. (reprint).
Biology “...the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.” Based on definition from Aquarena Wetlands Project glossary of terms. Term Biology was coined in 1736 by Carl von Linné (in latin form).
Physics By definition: “...the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force” J.C. Maxwell (1878) Matter and Motion Emerged as a unique science in 16 th century. Boundaries still hazy to this day.
Physics But is it a “just" definition? Thus the term “modern” Physics is: “...taken literally, means of course, the sum total of knowledge under the head of present-day physics” Richtmyer, Kennard & Lauritsen (1955)
Why so “Modern”? The reason can be coined by: "The past only exists insofar as it is present in the records of today. And what those records are is determined by what questions we ask. There is no other history than that" Wheeler (1982:24) So how far should we look?
History of Science Earliest known record: Thales of Melitus (c. 624BC to c. 546BC) Recorded by Aristotle (384BC to 322BC) Theories on the Origin of Life... from water. Definition of Basic Substances Nuclear Physics
History of Science Revolutionary Thinking? In the Axial Age (c. 800BC to c. 200BC) Anaximander came up with... The Big Bang Theory Well Close Enough
History of Science These are mere speculations... what about experimental proof? Eratosthenes (c. 276BC to c. 195BC) Managed to measure the circumference of the Earth without leaving Egypt!
How did he do it? He lived in Swenet, modern day Aswan. (Tropic of Cancer) Assumed that Alexandria was directly North A distance of 1/50 th the circumference of the Earth
How did he do it? By camel the estimated distance is 5000 stadia (800km) Rounded to 700 stadia per degree Giving a circumference of 252,000 stadia So how close did he actually come?
How did he do it? Assuming that he used the Egyptian Stadia (about 157.5m) We get 39, 375km!!! An error of less that 2% All this with huge limitations...
History of Science Remember Sir Isaac Newton and his laws? Well Ibn al-Haytham beat him to the punch!! (Persian scientist) Discussed: Perpetual motion Inertia Concept of Momentum
History of Science Indian Scientist, Aryabhata did something special... he made an approximation for Pi. “chaturadhikam śatamaśṭaguṇam dvāśaśṭistathā sahasrāṇām Ayutadvayaviśkambhasyāsanno vrîttapariṇahaḥ.” "Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached.“ Clark (1930)
History of Science Here’s the proof: Accurate to five significant figures!!!
To Conclude Is there more? Are we taking things for granted? "The past only exists insofar as it is present in the records of today. And what those records are is determined by what questions we ask. There is no other history than that" Wheeler (1982:24) It is up to you to decide.
References Beiser, Arthur, 2003The World of Physics: Readings in the Nature, History, and Challenge of Physics, Textbook Publishers Ltd., England Clark 1930 The Āryabhaṭīya of Āryabhaṭa: An Ancient Indian Work on Mathematics and Astronomy, University of Chicago Press; reprint: Kessinger Publishing (2006). Eves, Howard, 1990 An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (6 ed.). Saunders College Publishing House, New York. p. 237 Holton, G. and Roller, D.H.D., 1965Foundations of modern physical science, Addison- Wesley Pub. Co, England Lindberg, David C. 1976 Theories of Vision from al-Kindi to Kepler, University of Chicago Press, Chicago pp. 60–7 Mahmoud, Dr. Al Deek, 2004 "Ibn Al-Haitham: Master of Optics, Mathematics, Physics and Medicine", Al Shindagah (November- December 2004)
References Nader, El-Bizri, 2006 "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia, II, New York & London: Routledge, pp. 343–345, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 2003 "The achievements of Ibn Sina in the field of science and his contributions to its philosophy", Islam & Science (December 2003) Plofker, Kim 2007 "Mathematics in India". The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: A Sourcebook. Princeton University Press. Richtmyer, F.K, Kennard, E.H and Lauristen, T. 1955 Introduction to Modern Physics, (5th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill. Wheeler, John Archibald 1982 Bohr, Einstein, and the strange lesson of the quantum. In R. Q. Elvee, ed., Mind in Nature. San Francisco: Harper and Row; pg 24.