Presentation on theme: "Zadar, 20th September 2013 Teodora Shek Brnardić, Croatian Institute of History SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER (1506-1552) Apostle of India and Japan and the Construction."— Presentation transcript:
Zadar, 20th September 2013 Teodora Shek Brnardić, Croatian Institute of History SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER ( ) Apostle of India and Japan and the Construction of Sanctity in the Early Modern Period
THE COUNCIL OF TRENT AND THE MAKING OF SAINTS SESSION XXXV - On The Invocation, Veneration, And Relics Of Saints, And On Sacred Images The holy council commands all bishops and others who hold the office of teaching and have charge of the [...] they above all instruct the faithful diligently in matters relating to intercession and invocation of the saints, the veneration of relics, and the legitimate use of images, teaching them that the saints who reign together with Christ offer up their prayers to God for men, that it is good and beneficial suppliantly to invoke them and to have recourse to their prayers, assistance and support in order to obtain favors from God through His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who alone is our redeemer and savior.
12 March 1622 – THE CANONISATION OF ST IGNATIUS LOYOLA AND ST FRANCIS XAVIER Pope Gregory XV canonises St Ignatius Loyola and St Francis Xavier, church Il Gesù, Rome 1619 – beatified by Pope Paul V (Saint Ignatius in 1609) 3 December – feast day sanctity defined in terms of the Aristotelian-Thomist concept of HEROIC VIRTUE
THE CULT OF ST FRANCIS XAVIER A popular saint with rich iconography
ILLYRIAN MISSIONS mirrors of the political priorities of the Baroque rulers Zagreb Varaždin Dubrovnik Rijeka Požega Osijek
CROATIAN DEVOTIONAL TEXTS IN HONOR OF SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER AuthorCroatian TitleEnglish TitleCity and Year KAŠIĆ, BARTOL. S.J., missionary Xivot sfetoga Franceska Saveria od Druxbe Yesussove A Life of St Francis Xavier from the Soceity of Jesus Rome, 1638 SIDICH, SIMON JUDA (translator) Zagreb Canon and Custodian Plamen pobosznosti proti sz. Ferenczu Xaveriussu na slovenski jezik preobernyen po Simonu Judi Sidichu kanoniku zagrebechkomu i kustossu A Flame of Devotion to St Francis Xavier, translated into the Slavic Language by Simon Juda Sidich, Zagreb Canon and Custodian Zagreb, 1695 MIRKO ESTERHAZY DE GALANTHA, Bishop of Zagreb Molitva k-sz. Otczu Ferenczu Xaveriussu velikomu indianszkomu apostolu A Prayer to St Father Francis Xavier, the Great Apostle of Indies Zagreb, 1714 JURAJ MULIH, S.J., missionary Pobosznoszt na vsze hasznovita k szvetomu Ferenczu Xavieru A Devotion to St Francis Xavier, Useful to all Zagreb, 1739 JURAJ MULIH, S.J., missionary Kratek zavjetek sitka i kreposzti sz. Ferencza Xaveria A Short Account of Life and Virtues of Francis Xavier Zagreb 1739 or 1740 JURAJ MULIH, S.J., missionary Nebeszka hranaFood from HeavenZagreb, 1748 ANTUN KANIŽLIĆ, S.J.. teacher and missionary Bogolyubstvo na pocstenye svetoga Francescka Saverie, Druxbe Isusove, Indianskoga Aposctola i svita Csudotvorca Devotions in Honor of St Francis Xavier, from Society of Jesus, Indian Apostle and World Miracle-Worker Trnava, 1759 [Anonym]Brieve notizia della novena che si fa ad onore del grande apostolo dell'Indie s. Francesco Saverio della Compagnia di Gesu, nel mese di Marzo A Short Note on the Novena, which is Done in March in Honor of Great Apostle of India, St Francis Xavier from the Society of Jesus Dubrovnik, 1804
THE FIRST CROATIAN SHRINE OF ST FRANCIS XAVIER NEAR ZAGREB 1657 – Count Nikola III Erdödy ( ) expressed his wish to Jesuit fathers to build a small public chapel for honoring the saint August 1658 – the chapel built and consecrated by the Zagreb Bishop Petar Domitrović, the votive painting put into place 1718 – St Francis Xavier’s relics (a tiny bone from the hand) came from the church Il Gesù – the shrine’s reputation won recognition in Rome 1730/ – Via Dolorosa with a portal built May 1752 – the translation of the miraculous image into the new church
THE SHRINE OF ST FRANCIS XAVIER NEAR ZAGREB The miracolous image of St Francis Xavier that once hang in the shrine, now disappeared Miracles: first recorded in the history of the Zagreb college -from1718 in a separate book – Liber beneficiorum per patrocinium Divi Indiarum Apostoli – last records (in Croatian)
TESTIMONIES OF PRIVATE DEVOTIONS (“It would be a miracle, if he had not done a miracle” – a saying) PEOPLE The miraculous image of St Francis Xavier that once hang in the shrine, now disappeared (1733) Miraculous healings in 1687 – mostly physical: -mental and speech disorders -podagra -epilepsy -cancer -contracted limbs -magical possessions -pain in the arms and legs -swollen body -pregnant women in danger -dysentery -moral miracles – the story of a convert with turbulent past
PRIVATE DEVOTIONS Noble worshippers The miraculous image of St Francis Xavier that once hang in the shrine, now disappeared (1733) Votive offering of Count Emerik Juraj Erdoedy (1736) Illustrissimus dominus Emericus Georgius Erdödy votiva devotione hic peracta integre a profluvio sanguinis liberatus est 13. Novembris Magnus Sancti Xavieri cultor et benefactor. Pie obiit 1. Junii aetatis 5 (!).
PRIVATE DEVOTIONS Bishop of Zagreb as a worshipper The miracolous image of St Francis Xavier that once hang in the shrine, now disappeared (1733) A prayer to the Holy Father Francis Xavier, Great Indian Apostle (Zagreb, 1715) Mirko Esterh á zy de Galantha ( ), Bishop of Zagreb “I really owe a lot to this holy miracle-worker. Oh, if I could prove how great my love is for my new patron, the first next to God and to the Queen of Heaven! When I think of him, I feel delights of paradise. Oh, if I could attract the whole world to love him and to worship him!”
PUBLIC INVOCATIONS Totae enim Croatiae quacumque in necessitate piissimi populi certum est refugium Thaumaturgus noster (Chronicler of Zagreb College, 1763) “In honor of Saint Francis Xavier to whom Zagreb owes a great debt” 1688 – Aleksander Mikulić, Bishop of Zagreb, leads procession to pray for the victory of the Imperial Army against the Otomans 1688 – great draught an the threat of famine 1694 – Stjepan Seliščević, Bishop of Zagreb, leads procession for the final victory of the Christian arms 1744 – Juraj Branjug, Bishop of Zagreb, leads procession for the intercession against plague 1762 – the vow of the city of Zagreb – because of the raging cattle plague, Saint Francis Xavier was chosen for the patron- saint of Zagreb – remained so officially until 31 May 1991