Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece included Europe’s Balkan Peninsula and small rocky islands in the Aegean sea. -Protection from invaders -isolated islands prevent a united."— Presentation transcript:
Ancient Greece included Europe’s Balkan Peninsula and small rocky islands in the Aegean sea. -Protection from invaders -isolated islands prevent a united government (many different governments will development) *First Civilization we learn about that does not ‘grow up’ along a river. *First civilization that is not ‘United’ with one king. Same religion, language, & Society. But Geography prevents same government
Minoan civilization Greeks 1.0 From the Island of Crete. Sea-faring people. Evidence they Traded with Egyptians. Possibly destroyed by Volcanic eruptions in the area, conquered by invaders…
Mycenaean civilization Greeks 2.0 Spread out past Crete. Time Period where Homer writes The Iliad & The Odyssey Made up of Individual city-states or “Polis’ that developed it’s own government. When a Polis got to big, citizens would Spread out to a new area and be a colony Of the old ‘Polis’ and continue to trade with the Polis. Eventually these new areas experimented with government.
How did we go from ‘King’ or ruling elite to a Democracy? -Spread of Literacy and public display of laws allowed to general population to question laws of the nobles. -Establishment of new colonies overseas gave citizens opportunity to establish new patterns of land ownership and political organization. -New Military tactics (not just King & Chariot in the front) require formations of heavily armored warrior-citizens, give citizens sense of power.
Highly developed city-states that had different forms of government but shared common culture. Advanced in science, art, literature, philosophy, government, architecture, and more.
-Located on Peloponnesus peninsula of southern Greece. Boys and Men trained in the army. Girls trained to have strong babies. War-like: Used army to control society. Located on Peninsula of Attica Central Greece: Free to travel and receptive To new ideas. Ruled by Direct Democracy. Every male citizen gets a vote and voice. First ‘constitution’: written plan of government in Assembly. Strict society, little freedom. No traveling, no outsiders welcome.
-Persians land at Greek City of Marathon (25 miles north of Athens). Greeks win first battle (Darius 1) -10 years later Persians land again, Greeks unite. Sparta holds back the Persians for 3 days (story 300 comes from this). Gives enough time for Greeks to organize and defeat Persians again. (Xerxes) -Persians no longer a threat, Greeks go back to fighting each other.
-Athens is getting stronger. Sparta and other Greek city states join together to fight Athens. -Sparta gets the help of the Persians. Athens is struck by plague. Sparta & Persians beat Athens. -Major decline of all Greek City- states after this war. Macedonia, seeing how week Greece is from fighting from within, comes in and conquers all the city-states
Geography: Macedonia is north of the Greeks, Balkan Peninsula. 359 BC Philip II of Macedonia wants three things: 1. Create a strong army 2. Unify Greek City-states under Macedonia rule 3. Destroy the Persian Empire. Phillip is assassinated. Leaves behind a son to finish the job.
Alexander the Great
20 years old when he becomes king Possibly greatest war general ever. Studied under Aristotle for four years. -Never loses a battle -Never loses a war Greece Stops here because his men Refuse to go further
Alexander the Great Original goal: Conquer Persia Later Goal: Create an Empire -After he conquers a region, he makes that region part of his empire, improves region, moves on. Wears Persian style dress, Marries Persian royalty, spreads Greek language, culture and knowledge. Death of Alexander and consequences: Alexander dies of sickness. Generals split of his empire. None of them hold onto their acquired land. Fighting and war- fare break them apart.
Alexander the Great’s Empire
Under General Pericles Athens develops into cultural center: Parthenon is built: Temple to Warrior Goddess Athena. Still influences modern world today.
The Parthenon, recreated in Nashville TN
-Obsessed with Human form. Interested in what the ‘ideal’ or perfect human could look like.
Kritios boy 480 BC Extremely important Statue in human history. What is different between Kritios boy and these other Statues? The ability to show a shift In weight. A natural look. Requires detailed How muscles work, bone structure, and anatomy. The discovery of Contrapposto will one day pave the way for Extreme Contrapposoto and give humanity some of it’s greatest works:
The idea that clothes can have A realistic flowing look to them.
Greeks develop ‘The Play’ Tragedies: dramatic works which lead to characters struggle against fate. Unhappy and tragic endings. Comedies: Humorous themes and happy endings. Olympic games: Athletic contests in the city of Olympia. All Greek city-states welcome to send Athletes. Competed for Honor, glory, fame.
Thucydides: first person to examine historical information and refused to accept supernatural explanations as fact. Pythagoras: Attempted to explain the world in mathematical terms. Explored whole numbers, geometry, and ratios. Hippocrates: believed disease had a natural cause, not supernatural. Believed the human body could be cured of aliments. Said to have written the Hippocratic oath, still said today by doctors. Most Important: The Three Greek Philosophers Most Important: The Three Greek Philosophers
Never wrote anything down (We have to use secondary sources) Lived in Athens. Unsure of his job/work Responsible for the Socratic Method: Constant Questioning to find true answers “All I know is that I know nothing.” Executed for causing trouble in Athens: Drank Hemlock to die
Student of Socrates: Actually did things. (philosopher/mathematician) -Founded Plato’s Academy: First school of higher learning in Europe. -Wrote famous works including “The Republic” Nature of reality cannot be grasped by sense. Physical world we experience is a shadow of the ideal form of things.
-Student of Plato. Sought to catalog and classify the world. Rejected the notion of ‘Supernatural.’ - physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. -Observe facts, classify them according to similarities and differences and develop generalizations from data. Foundation for Science: Later replaced only by Newton. -Tutor for a boy named Alexander, Son of King Philip.
-After the Death of Alexander -Found in late Greek cities set up by Alexander. -Cities were intellectual centers: Drew thinkers, writers, artists, scientists. -Break from idealized art forms and now focused on ‘people caught in action, or powerful emotion.’
Euclid of Alexandria: expanded geometry. Archimedes: discovered principle of buoyancy Eratosthenes: estimated first circumference of the earth (1% off correct)