Presentation on theme: "The Ancient Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Ancient Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism Chapter 11The Ancient Hebrews and the Origins of Judaism
2 11.1: Introduction Hebrews were the founders of Judaism Basic laws are recorded in the TorahThe first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)Four major Hebrew leadersAbrahamMosesDavidSolomon
3 11.2: What We Know About the Ancient Hebrews TorahUsed to understand the history of the Jewish people and the development of JudaismEarly HistoryAbrahamLived in UrAround 1950 BCE, migrated with his clan to Caanan
4 1800 BCE: Hebrews moved to Egypt Left because of famineEventually became slavesMosesLed the Hebrews in their escape from EgyptWandered the wilderness for 40 yearsIsraelBy 1000 BCE, kingdom of Israel set up under King David’s rule and his son’s, King SolomonDavid forged Hebrews into one united nationSolomon built a temple in Jerusalem
5 11.3: Important Hebrew Leaders Abraham“Father of the Hebrews”Introduced the central belief that there is only one GodNew idea at the timeWas told by God to move his family from Mesopotamia to CaananHe was promised by God that he would father a great nationHis descendants became known as the Jewish people
6 Moses Considered the greatest leader of the Hebrews Lead his people out of slavery in EgyptTold the Hebrews that God would lead them to the “promised land” in exchange for their faithful obedienceGave Judaism its fundamental lawsTen CommandmentsLaws engraved on two stone tabletsBecame the foundation for Judaism
7 Kings David and Solomon King David created an united kingdomEstablished Jerusalem as a holy cityKing Solomon built Jerusalem’s first great templeKnown for great wisdomJerusalem and its temple became powerful symbols to the Hebrews
8 11.4: The Life of Abraham: Father of the Hebrews Originally called AbramWas born about 2000 BCE in Ur in MesopotamiaWhere people worshipped many godsCame to believe that there was only one true GodThis belief set Judaism apart from other ancient religions
9 Covenant with GodBegan the faith that would become JudaismWhen Abram was 99 years old God made a covenant with him that he would favor and protect Abram’s descendants in return for their devotion to him.As a symbol of the covenant, God gave Abram a new name, AbrahamPromised the land of Canaan to Abraham’s people
10 Abraham’s SacrificeNormal sacrifices were made such as sheepTorah states that God tested Abraham by telling him to sacrifice his son Isaac (born late in Abraham’s life).Even though Abraham loved his son, his devotion to God was completeAt the last minute, God sent an angel to stop Abraham from killing his sonAbraham proved his faith and obedienceAccording to the Torah, God kept his promise which led to the 12 tribes descended from Abraham’s grandson, Jacob (named Israel by an angel of God).
11 11.5 The Life Moses: Leader and Prophet Exodus from EgyptBy 1250 BCE, a large group of Abraham’s descendants were living in Egypt.The Torah says that the Hebrews “increased in number and became very powerful”.The pharaoh feared their power and turned them into slaves.God heard the cries of the enslaved Hebrews and sent Moses to the pharaoh.
12 Moses went before the pharaoh and told him to free the Hebrews. The pharaoh refused and God punished Egypt with 10 terrible plagues.One plague: locusts devoured their cropsAnother plague: the waters of the Nile turned to bloodLast plague: God sent an angel to kill the first born son in each Egyptian familyAfter the plagues, the pharaoh gave in and let the Hebrews go.
13 After the Hebrews left, the pharaoh changed his mind and followed them to the Red Sea with his army. Moses parted the waters of the Red Sea with his walking stick.The Hebrews were able to make it safely to the other side.The Egyptians tried to follow, but were caught by the falling waters; the soldiers drowned.The Torah refers to this time period as, the Exodus, which means “departure”.
14 Ten CommandmentsAfter the Hebrews wandered through the wilderness for 40 years, God gave Moses the laws that became the foundation of Judaism; the Ten CommandmentsMoses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai, the “Mountain of God”.He went up the mountain to pray, but came back carrying two tablets with the Ten Commandments engraved on them.
15 Some of the commandments spelled out the Hebrew’s duties to God. “You shall not have no other God before me”This was in response to the Hebrews beginning to worship other gods during their wanderings.The commandment reminded them of their promise to worship only one God.Another commandment told them to set aside one day a week for rest and worship; the SabbathOther commandments laid down basic moral laws (laws about right and wrong)“You shall honor your father and mother”.
16 11.6: The Lives of David and Solomon: Kings of Israel King DavidAround 1000 BCE the Hebrews were at war with a rival tribe, the Philistines.According to the Hebrew Bible, the Philistines promised to be the Hebrews’ slaves if someone could beat their fiercest warrior, GoliathDavid was young but he bravely stepped forward with only a slingshot as a weaponDavid felled Goliath with one stone
17 David’s courage and faith was awarded by God when he made him king. As King he:completed the defeat of the Philistines and other enemiesunited Israel and Judah into a single kingdom known as Israel.created a strong central governmentgave the new kingdom its own army, courts, and government officialsserved as the nation’s chief priest
18 chose Jerusalem as the capital became the center of Israel’s political and religious lifebrought the Hebrews’ most sacred object, the Ark of the Covenant, to Jerusalem, making it a holy citya wood an gold chest that held the Ten Commandments.
19 King Solomon Became king after the death of King David Built a magnificent temple in Jerusalem to house the Ark of the Covenant and to be the center of Jewish worshipWas very expensive to buildForced his people to work on the construction of the temple.More than 3000 officials were needed to oversee the projectTaxed his people heavily to buy gold, cedar wood, copper, and other materials
20 King Solomon’s methods angered many of the Hebrews In 931 BCE, the northern tribes broke away to become the separate kingdom of IsraelDavid and Solomon’s descendants ruled the southern kingdom of Judah