2 Catafalque“raised platform (with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state”
3 CatafalquePresident Ronald Reagan lying “in state”
4 Readings Question #1Describe what was done from the time of death for an Anglo-Saxon to the interment.soul shot: “mortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent’s soul into heaven”
5 Readings Question #2Describe the funeral process for rich Englishmen following the Norman Conquest in 1066.
6 Constantine’s Edict of Toleration (313 AD) burial within city wallsChristians worshipped in churchesChristians buried near their churchesConstantine buried in vestibule: “sepulture in church” became widespreadChurchyard burial for “overflow”
7 10th – 18th Century intramural burial became a nuisance churches and churchyards becoming overcrowdeduse of incense and myrrhBlack Death (14th Century): killed 2/3 - ¾ of the population of Englanduncoffined burial
8 Edward the Confessor 1004-1066 King of England from 1042-1066 Entombed at Westminster Abbey
9 Purgatorial Doctrine“Catholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they enter heaven.”fraternities, guilds, brotherhoods, leagues of prayer
10 Readings Question #3What were the duties of the “Steward of the Guild” and the “Death Crier”?
11 The Wake “vigil of the dead” : riotous behavior, drinking and dancing14th Century: “rousing the ghost”
12 Readings Question #4The wake served as an occasion for praying for the dead. What were some of the other functions of the wake? What is the “communion with the dead”?
13 Effigy“a lifesized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funerals because the body of the deceased should be present for the funeral, but could not be preserved for that length of time”
14 Wax Effigy of Sarah Hare (1744) Hare Mausoleum in Stow Bardolph England
15 Sepulchral Monuments earliest were stone coffins effigy tops of tombs rose above the floorcanopyincrease in sizeplaced at the east end of the church or separate chapels
16 The Plagues 6th Century AD Bubonic Plague: 542 Black Death: 14th CenturyGreat Plague of London: – 16651547: no burial from 6:00 p.m. – 6:00 a.m.1665: reversedtrench burial
17 Coffined Burial kofinos (Greek) arca or loculus (Roman) 695: English stone coffins6th century: wood coffin: leather, bull’s hidegenerally coffins reserved for the wealthy and important
18 15th Century public funerals for the rising middle class increased costs for funerals
19 Readings Question #5What was the purpose of the burial clubs? What would they provide? What were the duties of the club members?
20 Linen to Wool Shroud cerecloth expanding paper industry Burial in Woolen Act of 1666: “required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of the coffin; heavy fines were assessed for violation; it was not repealed until 1814”
21 Mourning Clothes “weed” mourning colors: brown: Persians and Abyssinianslight blue: Armenians and Syrianswhite: Chinesewhite: early Rome and Middle Ages
23 “Widow’s Weeds” 1666Margaret of Spain (Empress of Austria)
24 Local Customs Protestants: sprinkle earth Jews: bag of earth, mourners fill in graveIrish: sprinkle “blessed” earthEngland: rosemaryClergy: buried with feet toward the EastWales: east wind = “Wind of the Dead Men’s Feet”
25 Preoccupation with “Physical” Side of Death executed prisoners suspended from trees“songs of death”statues and woodcuts displayed putrefactionmorality playsdeath dancedeath was commonplaceless focus on “spiritual” nature of deathtremendous fear of dying
26 Sexton the result of churchyard burials underofficer of the church cared for church property, rang the bells and dug the graves
27 Readings Question #6What is independent heart burial? What is visceral embalming?King Edward I (1272 – 1307): Queen Eleanore’s body deposited in 3 tombs
28 Independent Bone Burial Bodies of the wealthy cut up, boiled and bones extractedBones placed in chest and returned homeSoft tissue buried with ceremony near the place of deathHundred Years War ( )Embalming in the Middle Ages will be taught in Embalming I.
29 Readings Question #7What influence did the Reformation have on Christian funeral beliefs and practices? Describe the Protestant funeral and interment service following the Reformation.Martin Luther ( )Counter Reformation of the Catholic Church