Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages and Renaissance. Catafalque “raised platform (with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state”"— Presentation transcript:
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Catafalque “raised platform (with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state”
Catafalque President Ronald Reagan lying “in state”
Readings Question #1 Describe what was done from the time of death for an Anglo-Saxon to the interment. soul shot: “mortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent’s soul into heaven”
Readings Question #2 Describe the funeral process for rich Englishmen following the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Constantine’s Edict of Toleration (313 AD) -burial within city walls -Christians worshipped in churches -Christians buried near their churches -Constantine buried in vestibule: “sepulture in church” became widespread -Churchyard burial for “overflow”
10 th – 18 th Century -intramural burial became a nuisance -churches and churchyards becoming overcrowded -use of incense and myrrh -Black Death (14 th Century): killed 2/3 - ¾ of the population of England -uncoffined burial
Edward the Confessor King of England from Entombed at Westminster Abbey
Purgatorial Doctrine “Catholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they enter heaven.” fraternities, guilds, brotherhoods, leagues of prayer
Readings Question #3 What were the duties of the “Steward of the Guild” and the “Death Crier”?
The Wake “vigil of the dead” : riotous behavior, drinking and dancing 14 th Century: “rousing the ghost”
Readings Question #4 The wake served as an occasion for praying for the dead. What were some of the other functions of the wake? What is the “communion with the dead”?
Effigy “a lifesized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funerals because the body of the deceased should be present for the funeral, but could not be preserved for that length of time”
Wax Effigy of Sarah Hare (1744) Hare Mausoleum in Stow Bardolph England
Sepulchral Monuments earliest were stone coffins effigy tops of tombs rose above the floor canopy increase in size placed at the east end of the church or separate chapels
The Plagues 6 th Century AD Bubonic Plague: 542 Black Death: 14 th Century Great Plague of London: 1664 – : no burial from 6:00 p.m. – 6:00 a.m. 1665: reversed trench burial
Coffined Burial kofinos (Greek) arca or loculus (Roman) 695: English stone coffins 6 th century: wood coffin : leather, bull’s hide generally coffins reserved for the wealthy and important
15 th Century public funerals for the rising middle class increased costs for funerals
Readings Question #5 What was the purpose of the burial clubs? What would they provide? What were the duties of the club members?
Linen to Wool Shroud cerecloth expanding paper industry Burial in Woolen Act of 1666: “required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud and lining of the coffin; heavy fines were assessed for violation; it was not repealed until 1814”
Mourning Clothes “weed” mourning colors: brown: Persians and Abyssinians light blue: Armenians and Syrians white: Chinese white: early Rome and Middle Ages
“Widow’s Weeds” 1666 Margaret of Spain (Empress of Austria)
Local Customs Protestants: sprinkle earth Jews: bag of earth, mourners fill in grave Irish: sprinkle “blessed” earth England: rosemary Clergy: buried with feet toward the East Wales: east wind = “Wind of the Dead Men’s Feet”
Preoccupation with “Physical” Side of Death executed prisoners suspended from trees “songs of death” statues and woodcuts displayed putrefaction morality plays death dance death was commonplace less focus on “spiritual” nature of death tremendous fear of dying
Sexton the result of churchyard burials underofficer of the church cared for church property, rang the bells and dug the graves
Readings Question #6 What is independent heart burial? What is visceral embalming? King Edward I (1272 – 1307): Queen Eleanore’s body deposited in 3 tombs
Independent Bone Burial Bodies of the wealthy cut up, boiled and bones extracted Bones placed in chest and returned home Soft tissue buried with ceremony near the place of death Hundred Years War ( ) Embalming in the Middle Ages will be taught in Embalming I.
Readings Question #7 What influence did the Reformation have on Christian funeral beliefs and practices? Describe the Protestant funeral and interment service following the Reformation. Martin Luther ( ) Counter Reformation of the Catholic Church