Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "1 Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church
Westmoreland, Stafford and King George Counties c Church and Parish history basically inseparatable.Parish bounds have remained near constant. However, politically, parish moved at least three times. Difficulty in locating historical references – documents spread over different counties, no surviving Vestry Books This review cuts off essentially with 1831 reestablishment of the church following Revolutionary War; Very little has changed re/church architecture since 1831 – essential repairs to roof and interior flooring have not altered Building’s appearance substantially. 1

2 Early Colonial Period, 1650 - 1725
Colonization Moving Up Rivers from Lower Tidewater Proprietors, Land Acquisition - Lord Culpepper /Fairfax, “All land between Potomac and Rappahannock to the Great Falls and Mountains Beyond” - Except Land Grants/ Patents, “Headrights” Local Acquisitions ( Near Chotank Creek) c. 1650, Caledon by John Alexander, present Waterloo area by Sam Heyward, Albion by Robert Townsend Northumberland Co, ; Westmoreland Co , Stafford Co., Potomac Parish to Upper and Lower Stafford Parishes, 1664 Lower Stafford aka Chotank Parish between Machodoc and Passapatanzy Creeks About 40 years after Jamestown, still frontier country. Transportation is mainly by water, no roads. Settlers are still First generation English, although some second generation in lower colony. Headrights refers to official policy of granting 50 acres/person transported to colony- probably received by Ship captains who sold property to individuals of wealth and/or agent/brokers Very much English, 17/18 century, with class system. Landed Gentry, craftsmen, indentured servants and Slaves Plantations to raise tobacco; main economic force, Lbs of tobacco colonial money. 2

3 Parish and County Arrangements
All one large county, Northumberland, 1645. Split to Lancaster and Westmoreland 1651/53 Stafford from upper Westmoreland 1664 Richmond Co along Rappahannock 1692, King George from Upper Richmond 1721 Current King George from Stafford and Westmoreland 1776/77 Chotank Parish Also known as Lower Stafford and St Paul’s after 1702 Parish and County Arrangements Upper Northern Neck 3

4 Early Parish, 1667, Stafford Court Orders Preaching at Rbt. Townsend’s House on Chotank (Earliest Record) Probably Rev, Morgan Godwin, Potomac Parish Rev John Waugh , Stafford Parishes, Rev. John Frazer, Stafford Parishes, William Fitzhugh Buys, Builds Bedford Plantation c.1670 - Churchman, Lawyer, Influential in Colony Parish is officially named St Paul’s after Fitzhugh’s home Parish in Bedford, England, Official in 1702 Records 1702 Report to London; Upper Parish 318 Tithables, St Paul’s Parish, 346 Tithables (!!) Early Rectors/ministers taken from Aquia notes, not recorded in St Paul’s records Lower Parish bounds- Lower Machadoc Creek to Passapatanzy Creek . Also called Chotank Parish. Parishioners called “Chotankers” for many years 4

5 First Church, c Located on Bedford Plantation, Near Site of Owens PO near/at “Hylton”? Probably rude Frame/ Log construction; No remains No record of Stafford Parishes’ Priest 1711- Rev. Alex. Scott Rector Upper(Overwharton) parish ,and Probably St Paul’s until 1722 1722- Rev. David Stuart Becomes Rector St Paul’s Parish -Scot, Royal Stuart Family, Fled Scotland 1715 for VA - Holy Orders in London, back to VA Via Barbados - Married Sister of Rev Scott”s Wife in Barbados - At St Paul’s until death in 1749 Hylton apparently was not built until late 18th or19th centuries; Original house gone. Speculation: Scott knew Stuart, was influential in bringing him to Stafford Co. 5

6 Second Church, c.1725 Frame construction built on or near present church site On Plebe Lands Bequeathed by John Allen and donated by Sam Heyward, Abt 400 acres probably included current Litchfield and East toward Owens Church Silver, made in 1720, given by Henry Fitzhugh for the “new church” Surviving St Paul’s Parish Register, , apparently started by Rev. Stuart. Parish Register mainly records Births, baptisms, deaths and marriages. No known surviving Vestry Book/records to give details on church construction, dates, etc. Sam Heyward apparently 0wned land, later named Waterloo, adjacent to Caledon and extending south to/beyond present church site; Waterloo property was inherited by Augustine Washington from his Great aunt who was Sam Heyward’s wife and heir. John Washington early St Paul’s Warden was son of Augustine, apparently built original Waterloo . 6

7 Third/Present Church, c.1768/70
Rev. William Stuart, Son of David, Succeeds Father, 1749 - Marries Sarah Foote, Receives Cedar Grove Farm from Father-in-law as wedding gift; Cedar Grove is Rectory next 45 yrs 1762 – Church Wardens Request Proposals of Interest to build Commodious Brick Church; VA Gazette, 12 Feb 1762 1766 – 18 Jul, VA Gazette, 2nd notice, request for bids to build -“Brick Church, Form of Cross, Ea Wing 16ft Long, 26ft Breadth, 2ft High to Water table, 24ft high Ceiling , Three Galleries” No Records of Undertaker (Contractor), Construction Dates,Cost or Finish Details -Based on Similar Sized Churches in Other Parishes, Cost Should have been about 1000 £, 2 yr Min const time. 1762 advertisement may have been for exploring cost and other construction details prior to actual decision to build. Apparently not a unusual procedure. Bid ad gives Inside dimensions of wings “in the clear” Finish Form, not actual details, can be inferred from customary practices in other churches and certain features required by English Church law. See next slide 7

8 Present Church, Cont Most likely patterned after neighboring Aquia Church - Vestrymen/Wardens of parishes were relatives - Bid Ad described similar, (2ft smaller each dimension), church - “Keep Up With The Jones” ?? Assuming bid award Fall of 1766, Earliest completion date Summer/Fall of 1768 - Geo. Washington records visits to St Paul’s in Spring, Summer 1768; Not clear if new brick church or old 1725 bldg - Could have been c or later depending on Parish financial position, const problems, etc. Also looming WAR! - Aquia Required 3yrs to build but was somewhat more elaborate - Some Parishes delayed building schedule to lessen tax burden - Bible and Prayer Book gift of Rev. Stuart dtd 1769 Actual completion date not known. Best estimate c. 1770 Bid was awarded for Aquia Church construction in 1751; construction was mostly complete in 1754 when it caught fire and the interior destroyed. Rebuilt in 1757 Washington,s diary notes visits to brother Col Sam in Spring and Fall of 1768; King (parish Register History} seems to feel this was shortly after the new brick church was completed. However, two years seems short for construction of a large church like St Paul,s Date of Stuart gift to church (1769) appears more likely but lead time in getting such gifts made and shipped from London, usually about one year, supports a more likely finish date of 1760. 8

9 Aquia Church,St Paul’s Sister Church
Built i751-54; burned three days before completion; rebuilt by 1757. Contracted at fixed price of 110,000 lbs of tobacco, 20,000 lbs add-on, contractor lost lbs Apparently ended Builder’s career( Mourning Richards) Sandstone from nearby Aquia Creek island (now Government Island) used extensively – door/window trim, corners Same stone used other neighboring churches, Washington, DC Capitol Bldg Aquia’s trim parallel to St Paul’s Rubbed Brick trim. Note tower on West leg. 9

10 St Paul’s, Present Roughly comparable view of St Paul,s (as close to a West elevation with perspective as possible with current topography.) Many changes to exterior made post Rev. War period (see next several slides) Similarity to Aquia evident from this and following plan views but must use imagination due to so much alteration. 10

11 17th and 18th Century English Church Architectural Styles
Three main Styles /Shapes: P N A Hall/ Rectangular Church Main English Church law requirements for location of Pulpit, Chancel (altar) and Font (not shown but in Chancel near altar Was observed in any individual arrangement Why St Paul’s would have had three entry doors, main entry in west wing. ST Paul’s built per Church Of England requirements, traditions “T” Church e.g. Lamb’s Creek e.g. Vauter’s Altar/chancel on East Wall Main entry in West end Pulpit on North wall, Hall and T Corner of crossing for Cruciform Cruciform Church- Latin or Greek 11 e.g. Aquia, St Paul’s

12 Christ Church, Lancaster
Virginia builders use cruciform shape in early – mid 18th century e.g. Christ Church Upper Potomac late colonial period builders like the two tiers of windows such as used on Pohick, Aquia, the Falls, St Paul’s and Christ Church Alexandria Note Entry Treatments for these churches – Pohick is near Aquia and used same stone trim, probably same mason. Rubbed Brick Window trim similar to St Paul’s Note Circular pediment over Main Entry(West) Door at Christ Church, Lancaster Pohick Church 12

13 Aquia Church Floor Plan
St Paul’s interior would have looked similar Main entry is at west wing Only one gallery (West Wing) at Aquia, St Paul’s would have had three – each wing except East 18ft lng wings, 28ft wide, is two feet larger than St Paul’s in each inside dimension. 13

14 Modifications made during conversion to Academy and church restoration of 1830/31;
North transept walled off and chimney added West and north entry doors bricked up along with upper level middle windows above; Window in NE wall of E transept bricked 16ft long wings, 26ft wide ( 2ft smaller than Aquia) Lower level windows in S walls of W and E transepts and E wall of N transept converted to doors Original Classical South door pediment removed Chancel with pulpit installed on North wall partition Galleries reinstalled in S and W wings new gallery added to E wing 14

15 Aquia Church, Chancel and Pulpit
Visualize this arrangement superimposed in St Paul’s East Wing Altar Board would have been smaller, probably less elaborate St Paul’s East Wing wall only two windows each level Note open and light environment resulting from full – glass upper windows and no gallery 15

16 Chancel, Aquia Church Closer view of Chancel; original altar board ( reredos) finest example of 18th century altarpiece 16

17 Aquia Church, Three level Pulpit
Supplemental view of” three – decker” pulpit at Aquia Note Sounding Board above upper, preaching, level. 17

18 Aquia Church Pulpit Side View of pulpit shows wineglass design of support structure. Not common in most designs, side panels would extend to floor 18

19 Lower South Façade,Current Main Entry
St Paul’s Church Lower South Façade,Current Main Entry Entry door changes to St Paul’s South wing apparent from this view. Note where original door trim has been removed Above current door and replaced by brick: replacement is in English bond rather than Original Flemish bond! 19

20 West (Main )Entry Door, Aquia Church
Original construction but probably has had repair and maintenance Stone for trim came from nearby Government Island; St Paul,s would have used rubbed brick trim 20 West (Main )Entry Door, Aquia Church

21 Lamb,s Creek Church, Door Trim
Most likely what South and North Entry doors would have been for original St Paul’s construction Rubbed Brick somewhat darker hue than that found at St Paul’s 21

22 22 Secondary Door Pediment Detail Christ Church, Lancaster
Somewhat more elaborate Secondary door pediment found on South and North doors of Christ Church Lancaster Reportedly 20th century restoration work done here 22

23 Primary Entry Door (West) Trim Christ Church, Lancaster
Main Entry in West wing for St Paul’s would Probably have had circular type pediment similar to this at Christ Church Lancaster English Church Design Custom used classical triangular style pediments for secondary type doors; Used Circular arch type pediments for main (West) doors in cruciform type construction. Entries usually treated same for” Hall and T” type construction using two doors 23

24 Views (CCW from upper RH) : East Elevation West Elevation
North Elevation Façade views show alteration scars North and West facades most drastically altered East façade practically untouched except for upper windows 24

25 Circular Arch/Compass
Current St Paul,s Lambs Creek Original ST Paul’s Upper Windows probably full glass similar to these Circular Arch/Compass Window 25 Aquia

26 E Wall, N Wing N Wall, E Wing NW View, N,W Wings S Wall, W Wing
Scars Of exterior modifications; S wall,N transept and N wall W transept are unchanged S Wall, W Wing NW View, N,W Wings 26

27 Photo Probably taken about late !930’s
St Paul’s Rectory,c.1841 Today,Old Parish House This configuration of our old Rectory/ Parish House remembered by some of current members! Note: Should move this to last slide or just flash for sentimental purposes after presentation 27 Photo Probably taken about late !930’s

28 Late Colonial and Post-war, 1770 - 1831
Rev Wm. Stuart Rector thru War Until Disabled, Resigned 1796 John Parsons, Deacon, Rector 1797 – 1808 Diocese of Virginia Organized 1785 Parish/church Declined after - Anti- British Feelings, Congregation scattered,Low Religious Interest - Church in complete ruins by 1812; Bishop Meade eye- witness account –all woodwork missing, no windows, roof missing/leaking Glebe Act 1802, Glebes sold by State, building converted to Academy, 1813 Vestry Reorganized 1816, Church Returned to Parish Wardens, s’, Restored to Present Configuration, consecrated 15 May 1831 Glebe Act established right of state government to take over untended Anglican Church property Including glebe farm lands. Apparently sale of St Paul’s glebe provided funds for the academy and for other educational as well as Charitable purposes, a function previously provided by the Church under Colonial rule. 28

29 23 of 95 pre-war parishes out of existence, gone
State of the Diocese,1785 23 of 95 pre-war parishes out of existence, gone 34 of remaining 72 parishes without ministerial support Many churches destroyed 28 0f 91 pre-war clergy remained, 13 of these unable to hold Parishes because of anti – English sentiments 15 clergy in cure of parishes held prior/during war Ref: History of church in Virginia from 1785 to death of Bishop Meade,Address by Rev T. G. Dashiell to May 20-24,1885 Diocese of Virginia Centennial Council Very grim situation after Revolutionary war 29

30 Summary St Paul’s Parish Established c.1667, original boundaries maintained thru present date –minor increase in 1777 when taken into King George Co Present Church Built c.1770 ; Called “ Finest Brick Church in Colonial Virginia”. Abandoned and fell into ruins following Revolutionary War, Architecture drastically altered by conversion to academy. Building returned to parish in 1820s’, restored as Antebellum “T” shape church (present configuration) consecrated 1831. Today St Paul’s is a church with Antebellum Interior and Semi- Colonial exterior! 30

31 Major References/ Sources
Register of St Paul’s Parish, 1715 – 1798, Transcript and Historical Sketch, Copyright 1960, George H. S. King, fellow, American Society of Genealogists, Fredericksburg, VA Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia, Volume II , Bishop William Meade, Originally published 1857, Philadelphia,Reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1978 Holy Things and Profane, Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia, Dell Upton, 1986, The Architectural History Foundation, New York, NY, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts,and London, England The Colonial Churches of Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina : Their Interiors and Worship, Vernon Perdue Davis and James Scott Rawlings, The Dietz Press, Richmond, VA, 1985 Virginia’s Colonial Churches; An Architectural Guide, by James Scott Rawlings, Garrett & Massie, Richmond 1963 John Alexander, a Northern Neck Proprietor, His Family, Friends and Kin, Wesely E. Pippenger, Gateway Press, Baltimore MD, 1990 All five sources give basically same historical sketch; minor disagreements on dates. Also drew from memory of proof manuscript on Early Parish History by the Rev’d Dr George MacLaren Brydon, former St Paul’s Rector and ecclesiastical historian of the Diocese of Virginia 31

Download ppt "1 Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google