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Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church Westmoreland, Stafford and King George Counties c. 1667 -1831 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church Westmoreland, Stafford and King George Counties c. 1667 -1831 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical Sketch of St Paul’s Parish/church Westmoreland, Stafford and King George Counties c. 1667 -1831 1

2 Early Colonial Period, 1650 - 1725 Colonization Moving Up Rivers from Lower Tidewater Proprietors, Land Acquisition - Lord Culpepper /Fairfax, “All land between Potomac and Rappahannock to the Great Falls and Mountains Beyond” - Except Land Grants/ Patents, “Headrights” Local Acquisitions ( Near Chotank Creek) c. 1650, Caledon by John Alexander, present Waterloo area by Sam Heyward, Albion by Robert Townsend Northumberland Co, 1646-1653; Westmoreland Co 1653- 1664, Stafford Co., 1664-1777 Potomac Parish to Upper and Lower Stafford Parishes, 1664 Lower Stafford aka Chotank Parish between Machodoc and Passapatanzy Creeks 2

3 Parish and County Arrangements Upper Northern Neck Chotank Parish Also known as Lower Stafford and St Paul’s after 1702 3

4 Early Parish, 1667- 1702 1667, Stafford Court Orders Preaching at Rbt. Townsend’s House on Chotank (Earliest Record) Probably Rev, Morgan Godwin, Potomac Parish 1667-1670 Rev John Waugh, Stafford Parishes, 1670-1700 Rev. John Frazer, Stafford Parishes, 1700-1704 William Fitzhugh Buys, Builds Bedford Plantation c.1670 - Churchman, Lawyer, Influential in Colony Parish is officially named St Paul’s after Fitzhugh’s home Parish in Bedford, England, Official in 1702 Records 1702 Report to London; Upper Parish 318 Tithables, St Paul’s Parish, 346 Tithables (!!) 4

5 First Church, c.1675-1725 Located on Bedford Plantation, Near Site of Owens PO near/at “Hylton”? Probably rude Frame/ Log construction; No remains No record of Stafford Parishes’ Priest 1704-1711 1711- Rev. Alex. Scott Rector Upper(Overwharton) parish,and Probably St Paul’s until 1722 1722- Rev. David Stuart Becomes Rector St Paul’s Parish -Scot, Royal Stuart Family, Fled Scotland 1715 for VA - Holy Orders in London, back to VA Via Barbados - Married Sister of Rev Scott”s Wife in Barbados - At St Paul’s until death in 1749 5

6 Second Church, c.1725 Frame construction built on or near present church site On Plebe Lands Bequeathed by John Allen and donated by Sam Heyward, Abt 400 acres probably included current Litchfield and East toward Owens Church Silver, made in 1720, given by Henry Fitzhugh for the “new church” Surviving St Paul’s Parish Register, 1715-1798, apparently started by Rev. Stuart. 6

7 Third / Present Church, c.1768/70 Rev. William Stuart, Son of David, Succeeds Father, 1749 - Marries Sarah Foote, Receives Cedar Grove Farm from Father-in- law as wedding gift; Cedar Grove is Rectory next 45 yrs 1762 – Church Wardens Request Proposals of Interest to build Commodious Brick Church; VA Gazette, 12 Feb 1762 1766 – 18 Jul, VA Gazette, 2 nd notice, request for bids to build -“Brick Church, Form of Cross, Ea Wing 16ft Long, 26ft Breadth, 2ft High to Water table, 24ft high Ceiling, Three Galleries” No Records of Undertaker (Contractor), Construction Dates,Cost or Finish Details -Based on Similar Sized Churches in Other Parishes, Cost Should have been about 1000 £, 2 yr Min const time. 7

8 Present Church, Cont Most likely patterned after neighboring Aquia Church 1751-1757 - Vestrymen/Wardens of parishes were relatives - Bid Ad described similar, (2ft smaller each dimension), church - “Keep Up With The Jones” ?? Assuming bid award Fall of 1766, Earliest completion date Summer/Fall of 1768 - Geo. Washington records visits to St Paul’s in Spring, Summer 1768; Not clear if new brick church or old 1725 bldg - Could have been c. 1769 or later depending on Parish financial position, const problems, etc. Also looming WAR! - Aquia Required 3yrs to build but was somewhat more elaborate - Some Parishes delayed building schedule to lessen tax burden - Bible and Prayer Book gift of Rev. Stuart dtd 1769 Actual completion date not known. Best estimate c. 1770 8

9 Aquia Church,St Paul’s Sister Church 9

10 St Paul’s, Present 10

11 17 th and 18 th Century English Church Architectural Styles Three main Styles /Shapes: N Hall/ Rectangular Church “T” Church Cruciform Church- Latin or Greek P A e.g. Lamb’s Creek e.g. Vauter’s e.g. Aquia, St Paul’s Altar/chancel on East Wall Main entry in West end Pulpit on North wall, Hall and T Corner of crossing for Cruciform 11

12 Christ Church, Lancaster 1732 -35 Pohick Church 1769 - 74 12

13 Aquia Church Floor Plan 13

14 14

15 Aquia Church, Chancel and Pulpit 15

16 Chancel, Aquia Church 16

17 Aquia Church, Three level Pulpit 17

18 Aquia Church Pulpit 18

19 St Paul’s Church Lower South Façade,Current Main Entry 19

20 West (Main )Entry Door, Aquia Church 20

21 Lamb,s Creek Church, Door Trim 21

22 Secondary Door Pediment Detail Christ Church, Lancaster 22

23 Primary Entry Door (West) Trim Christ Church, Lancaster 23

24 24 Views (CCW from upper RH) : East Elevation West Elevation North Elevation

25 Current St Paul,s Lambs Creek Aquia Circular Arch/Compass Window 25

26 N Wall, E WingE Wall, N Wing S Wall, W Wing NW View, N,W Wings 26

27 St Paul’s Rectory,c.1841 Today,Old Parish House Photo Probably taken about late !930’s 27

28 Late Colonial and Post-war, 1770 - 1831 Rev Wm. Stuart Rector thru War Until Disabled, Resigned 1796 John Parsons, Deacon, Rector 1797 – 1808 Diocese of Virginia Organized 1785 Parish/church Declined after 1805-1808 - Anti- British Feelings, Congregation scattered,Low Religious Interest - Church in complete ruins by 1812; Bishop Meade eye- witness account –all woodwork missing, no windows, roof missing/leaking Glebe Act 1802, Glebes sold by State, building converted to Academy, 1813 Vestry Reorganized 1816, Church Returned to Parish Wardens, 1820s’, Restored to Present Configuration, consecrated 15 May 1831 28

29 State of the Diocese,1785 23 of 95 pre-war parishes out of existence, gone 34 of remaining 72 parishes without ministerial support Many churches destroyed 28 0f 91 pre-war clergy remained, 13 of these unable to hold Parishes because of anti – English sentiments -15 clergy in cure of parishes held prior/during war Ref: History of church in Virginia from 1785 to death of Bishop Meade,Address by Rev T. G. Dashiell to May 20-24,1885 Diocese of Virginia Centennial Council 29

30 Summary St Paul’s Parish Established c.1667, original boundaries maintained thru present date –minor increase in 1777 when taken into King George Co Present Church Built c.1770 ; Called “ Finest Brick Church in Colonial Virginia”. Abandoned and fell into ruins following Revolutionary War, Architecture drastically altered by conversion to academy. Building returned to parish in 1820s’, restored as Antebellum “T” shape church (present configuration) consecrated 1831. Today St Paul’s is a church with Antebellum Interior and Semi- Colonial exterior! 30

31 Major References/ Sources 1.Register of St Paul’s Parish, 1715 – 1798, Transcript and Historical Sketch, Copyright 1960, George H. S. King, fellow, American Society of Genealogists, Fredericksburg, VA 2.Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia, Volume II, Bishop William Meade, Originally published 1857, Philadelphia,Reprinted Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1978 3.Holy Things and Profane, Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia, Dell Upton, 1986, The Architectural History Foundation, New York, NY, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts,and London, England 4.The Colonial Churches of Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina : Their Interiors and Worship, Vernon Perdue Davis and James Scott Rawlings, The Dietz Press, Richmond, VA, 1985 5.Virginia’s Colonial Churches; An Architectural Guide, by James Scott Rawlings, Garrett & Massie, Richmond 1963 6.John Alexander, a Northern Neck Proprietor, His Family, Friends and Kin, Wesely E. Pippenger, Gateway Press, Baltimore MD, 1990 31

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