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CHAPTER 12 TEST REVIEW DNA, Protein Synthesis and Viruses.

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1 CHAPTER 12 TEST REVIEW DNA, Protein Synthesis and Viruses

2 #2 Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: stole the Photo 51 HINT 3: also got Nobel Prize ANSWER: Maurice (the beast) Wilkins (G)

3 #2 Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: used x-ray crystallography Photo 51 HINT 3: a woman ANSWER: Rosalind Franklin (A)

4 #2 Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: first put bases on outside instead of inside HINT 3: won Nobel prize for finding DNA structure ANSWER: Watson and Crick (E)

5 #2 Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: Found DNA to be the genetic material HINT 2: used bacteriophages HINT 3:used “hot” sulfur and phosphorus ANSWER: Hershey and Chase (C)

6 #2 Which scientist(s)? HINT 1: found DNA was genetic material HINT 2: separated bacteria into: carbos, DNA, protein, RNA by a centrifuge HINT 3: bald ANSWER: Avery (H)

7 #3 Name ways RNA is different from DNA: 1. RNA = Ribose sugar instead of Deoxyribose in DNA 2. DNA A-T C-G RNA A-U C-G 3. RNA= Single stranded instead of Double in DNA 4. RNA can go in and out of nucleus, DNA must stay in nucleus 5. DNA can repair itself, RNA cannot

8 What three parts of DNA make up one nucleotide? ANSWER: –sugar –Phosphate –Nitrogenous base (remember the song)

9 EXTRA: What is the complementary side of this DNA strand? (DNA – DNA) G - A - T - T - G - A - C - C - T - C - G – G ANSWER: C - T - A - A - C - T - G - G - A - G - C- C

10 What is the complementary mRNA strand? (DNA – mRNA) G - A - T - T - G - A - C - C - T - C - G – G ANSWER: C - U - A - A - C - U - G - G - A - G - C- C

11 #4 Identify the DNA parts: A B C D E

12 #4 Identify the DNA parts A PHOSPHATE B Deoxyribose Sugar C Nitrogenous Bases (A-T-C-G) D Hydrogen Bond Nucleotide = sugar, phosphate, base Covalent bond

13 #5 Which process? Does DNA copy itself? ANSWER: Replication (A) Is the movement of tRNA from A to P site on the ribosome? ANSWER: Translocation (B)

14 #5 Which process? Codes DNA to mRNA? ANSWER? Transcription (C) Codes mRNA to tRNA and protein? ANSWER: Translation (D)

15 #5 What happens at the P and A sites of a ribosome during translation? A = amino acid is dropped off P = polypeptide builds Process is translocation (B)

16 #6 Which enzyme? Unwinds DNA from its spiral ANSWER: Topoisomerase (B)

17 #6 Which enzyme? Separates the 2 DNA strands (breaks H bonds for replication) ANSWER: Helicase (D)

18 #6 Which enzyme? Adds nucleotides to DNA for elongation and also for proofreading ANSWER: DNA polymerase (C)

19 #6 Which enzyme? Binds Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand ANSWER: Ligase (A)

20 #6 Which enzyme? Adds RNA nucleotide primers ANSWER: Primase (E)

21 #6 Which enzyme? Makes RNA’s ANSWER: RNA polymerase (G)

22 #7 Which is a physical or chemical agent that causes mutations? A. mutagen B. mutagenesis C. mutation D. reading frame ANSWER: A mutagen

23 #7 Which is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA? A. Mutagenesis B. mutation C. mutagen D. reading frame ANSWER: B mutation Epidermodysplasia verruciformis Uncontrolled HPV infections result in the growth of scaly macules and papules

24 Tree Man Pictures Before and After Images : Tree Man : Discovery HealthBefore and After Images : Tree Man : Discovery Health

25 #7 Which is the triplet grouping (a mutation can alter it to shift) A. mutation B. mutagenesis C. mutagen D. reading frame ANSWER: D reading frame

26 ADD What is a HOX gene? They produce genes that share those that control: (WHICH) A. eye development B. Cancer C. Body plan D. hair development

27 ADD What is a HOX gene? They produce genes that share Body plan control C

28 #8 What are some examples of mutagens? X-rays UV Rays pesticides cigarettes

29 #9 What is polyploidy? N 2N 4N

30 #9 What is polyploidy? multiple sets of chromosomes EX: 4N, 5N Usually beneficial for plants

31 #10 Operon (group of genes working together) Promoter (start)– latches on to the beginning enzyme Operator (controller)– attaches on to repressor, can stop or allow the protein production Repressor (brake)– binds to operator to stop production

32 #10 Operon VCAC: Molecular Processes: Lac Operon: The Movie The lac Operon HERE Lac Operon Animation (no sound)Lac Operon Animation

33 ALSO: What is NOT part of an operon? Operator Terminator Promoter Repressor ANSWER: terminator

34 #11 What amino acid is mRNA codon: UGU AAC UAC CGU GGG CAC UGG

35 11. What amino acid is mRNA codon: Cyst–Aspar –Tyros–Arg–Glyc-Hist-Trypt

36 #12 What codon is the START CODON?

37 12. What amino acid is START codon: AUG

38 #12 What are the three STOP CODONS? ANSWER? UAA, UAG, UGA (you could also figure this out by looking at the chart)

39 What amino acid is mRNA codon: UGG tryptophan

40 # 12 How many? Different amino acids are there? ANSWER: 20

41 #13 How many subunits make up a ribosome? A. one B. two C. Three D. Four

42 Made of rRNA (ribosomal) + protein

43 #14 What are the 3 bases? A. Codon B. Anticodon C. Triplet

44 #14 What are the 3 bases? A. Codon B. Anticodon C. Triplet For mRNA For tRNA For DNA

45 What does a tRNA carry? A. codon B. triplet C. amino acid D. ribosome ANSWER: amino acid

46 #15 Match: Introns Exons Are cut and discarded from the primary mRNA Leave the nucleus to be coded with tRNA

47 15. What will the mature mRNA look like?

48 What will the mRNA look like? 123 HINT: introns discarded exons kept and coded = mature mRNA Just exons

49 #15 What’s the difference? Between Primary mRNA and mature mRNA? Primary mRNA = introns + exons Mature mRNA = only exons

50 #16 What are the 3 types of RNA? a) tRNA (transfer RNA-brings amino acids) b) mRNA (messenger RNA-codes from DNA), and c) rRNA (ribosomal RNA-structural part of ribosome)

51 #16 Matching CHOICES: tRNA mRNA r RNA Structural form of ribosome Codes DNA to mRNA Brings amino acids to ribosome

52 #16 Matching Structural form of ribosome rRNA Codes DNA to mRNA mRNA Brings amino acids to tRNA ribosome

53 #17 What are the structures? (See worksheet)

54 #18 What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AAACGTAGG ANSWER: insertion (A)

55 #18 What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AACGAGG ANSWER: Deletion (T)

56 #18 What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AACGGGAT ANSWER: Inversion (TAGG flipped)

57 #18 What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL 2 chromosomes AACGTAGG ATCGGGTCGGA MUTATION: AACGTATCGGG TCGGAAGG ANSWER: Translocation (two nonhomologous chromosomes exchanged)

58

59 COOL!

60 ADD: A lysogenic infection: A. joins with the host DNA B. infects the host, but does not join the host DNA ANSWER: A Lytic infection infects the host, but does not join the host DNA


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