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CHAPTER 10 TEST REVIEW DNA, Protein Synthesis and Viruses
Identify the DNA parts: A B C D
A PHOSPHATE B Deoxyribose Sugar C Nitrogenous Base D Hydrogen Bond
What three parts of DNA make up one nucleotide? ANSWER: –sugar –Phosphate –Nitrogenous base (remember the song)
Name 3 ways RNA is different from DNA: 1. Uracil instead of Thymine. 2. Single stranded instead of Double. 3. Ribose sugar instead of Deoxyribose.
What is the complementary side of this DNA strand? (DNA – DNA) G - A - T - T - G - A - C - C - T - C - G – G ANSWER: C - T - A - A - C - T - G - G - A - G - C- C
What is the complementary mRNA strand? (DNA – mRNA) G - A - T - T - G - A - C - C - T - C - G – G ANSWER: C - U - A - A - C - U - G - G - A - G - C- C
What are the 3 types of RNA? a) t-RNA (transfer RNA) b) m-RNA (messenger RNA), and c) r-RNA (ribosomal RNA)
Which bases are pyrimidines? HINT: cut the pie C – U - T
Which bases are purines? HINT: not cut G and A
Which bases are 2-rings? HINT: be pure for marriage and get 2 rings ANSWER: purines A and G
Which bases are one ring? HINT: pie is one circle C – U - T
Which scientist(s)? HINT 1: found DNA was genetic material HINT 2: separated bacteria into: carbos, DNA, protein, RNA by a centrifuge HINT 3: bald ANSWER: Avery
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: Found DNA to be the genetic material HINT 2: used bacteriophages HINT 3:used “hot” sulfur and phosphorus ANSWER: Hershey and Chase
Which Scientist(s) HINT 1: worked with Neurospora crassa HINT 2: worked as a team HINT 3: one-gene-one-enzyme ANSWER: Beadle and Tatum
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: used x-ray crystallography Photo 51 HINT 3: a woman ANSWER: Rosalind Franklin
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: first put bases on outside instead of inside HINT 3: won Nobel prize for finding DNA structure ANSWER: Watson and Crick
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked on finding DNA structure HINT 2: stole the Photo 51 HINT 3: also got Nobel Prize ANSWER: Maurice (the beast) Wilkins
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: 1920’s HINT 2: worked with Pneumococcus bacteria R and S strains HINT 3: Found hereditary transformation ANSWER: Frederick Griffith
Which Scientist(s)? HINT 1: worked with animal sperm HINT 2: a hottie HINT 3: found A-T and C-G amounts even ANSWER: Chargaff
What if a DNA sample had 20% adenine, how much guanine should there be? ANSWER: if 20% A and 20% T then 30% C and 30% G
Label the Parts of the Bacteriophage:
1 = DNA 2 = protein coat 3 = tail fiber 4 = tail 4
Which enzyme? Unwinds DNA ANSWER: Topoisomerase
Which enzyme? Separates the 2 DNA strands (breaks H bonds for replication) ANSWER: Helicase
Which enzyme? Adds nucleotides to DNA for elongation and also for proofreading ANSWER: DNA polymerase
Which enzyme? Binds Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand ANSWER: Ligase
Which enzyme? Adds RNA nucleotide primers ANSWER: Primase
Which enzyme? Makes RNA’s ANSWER: RNA polymerase
What are the parts of the DNA replication fork? Leading strand, lagging strand, and DNA polymerase
What are the parts of the DNA replication fork? Leading strand DNA polymerase Okazaki fragments on lagging strand
What will the mRNA look like?
123 HINT: exons discarded Introns kept and coded
What amino acid is mRNA codon: AAA
What amino acid is mRNA codon: UGG
What codon is the START CODON?
What are the three STOP CODONS? ANSWER? UAA, UAG, UGA (you could also figure this out by looking at the chart)
AUGAGGCUAUAG UACUCCGAUAUC Met Arg Leu STOP
What is the mRNA that will code to this anticodon?
What does a tRNA carry? A. codon B. triplet C. amino acid D. ribosome
How many? Nucleotides in a typical gene? ANSWER: hundreds or thousands
How Fast? Does DNA replication usually take? ANSWER: About 50 nucleotides added per second
Which process? Codes DNA to mRNA? ANSWER? Transcription Codes mRNA to tRNA and protein? ANSWER: Translation
How many subunits make up a ribosome? A. one B. two C. Three D. Four
What process? Transfers the tRNA from the A to the P location on the ribosome? ANSWER: Translocation
What process? Is DNA making a copy of itself? ANSWER: Replication
What kind of things… Are mutagens? ANSWER: high-energy radiation, X- rays, cigarette smoke, UV light, asbestos
Define: Mutation: ANSWER: Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AAACGTAGG ANSWER: insertion (A)
What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AACGAGG ANSWER: Deletion (T)
What type of mutation is this? ORIGINAL: AACGTAGG MUTATION: AACGGGAT ANSWER: Inversion (TAGG flipped))
Matching Viruses: 1. Causes hemorrhagic fever 2. Mice in SW US carried this virus 3. In Malaysia 4. Causes AIDS A. HIV B. Hanta virus C. Nipah D. Ebola
Matching Viruses: 1. Causes hemorrhagic fever 2. Mice in SW US carried this virus 3. In Malaysia (encephalitis) 4. Causes AIDS (4) A. HIV (2) B. Hanta virus (3) C. Nipah (1) D. Ebola
WHAT IS A RETROVIRUS? A. goes backwards B. codes DNA to DNA C. codes RNA to DNA ANSWER: C codes RNA to DNA
WHAT IS the enzymes that codes retroviruses? A. reversase B. RNAase C. reverse transcriptase ANSWER: C reverse transcriptase
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