10PollutionPollutionPO2 depletionSedimentNAlgal bloomShadingCleanWaterShadingImpactsAquatic organismsHuman healthHuman use andenjoyment of the environment
11Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in natural waters, Stormwater and wastewater (expressed in mg/L)** current technologyNote that untreated urban stormwater runoff has about the sameconcentration as treated wastewaterParameterNatural WatersUrban StormwaterUntreated sewageCSOsTreated sewage**Nitrogen0.1(as NO-3)2 to 3203-243Phosphorus0.005 –0.05 (asdissolved P)0.2 –0.5101-110.1
12Runoff Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) for N and P in an Urban Environment Urban Land CoverTotal N (mg/l)Total P (mg/l)Lawns9.701.90Highway2.950.60Streets1.400.50Parking lots1.940.16Roof tops1.500.12Source: CWP, 2003
13Urban Nutrient Loads (are fast becoming a bigger slice of the Bay pie) Year Total N Total P% 5%% %% 22%????Urban and suburban runoff into the Chesapeake Bay is the only nutrient load sector where we are seeing reverse progressIn load reductions-source OIG (2007)
14There are many sources of N and P in the urban environment
15Some additional sources of nitrogen in urban runoff include: Wash-off of fertilizersNitrogen attached to eroded soils and streambanksOrganic matter and pet wastes on Impervious Cover
16Effect of Eutrophication on Waters Increased frequency of algal bloomsIncreased hypoxia and anoxiaDecline in submersed aquatic plantsReduced water clarityDecline in benthic lifeFish kills
17Nutrient Enrichment by Stormwater Most streams have a naturally low phosphorus content (TP)EPA’s recommendation for TP in natural streams is 0.1 mg/lP-enriched streams have:higher biomassless biological diversitymore bottom algae and rock scumlower oxygen levels
19Stream Impacts 8-10% 20% > 65% Impervious Cover In-stream erosion results in the release of nutrients into the stream. These nutrients are/were attached to soil particles and in pore spaces.
20Pollution of 1970s The Federal Pollution Control Act of 1972 NPDES Clean Water Act (1977)NEPA (1970)Clean Air Act (1970)ESA (1973)TSCA (1976)CERCLA (1980)
21Governor’s Natural Resources Partnership Agenda “The Secretary of Natural Resources will work with the DEQ, DCR, CBLAD, other agencies and the public to streamline the current storm water management process. A plan and recommendations are due to the Governor by October 1, 2003 that provides for improved water quality protection and evaluates stormwater programs statewide.”
22Some of the Key Recommendations Establish a more uniform statewide construction permitting programEstablish statewide stormwater requirements for projects with land disturbances of 1 acre or greater (with allowance for lower threshold in CBPA)Empower local governments to implement stormwater management programsDevelop a statewide permit fee systemEncourage low-impact approaches and better site designsConsolidate SWM and ESC local program reviews
232004 LegislationFollowed a year of planning meetings/negotiations among Secretary of Natural Resources, three agency heads and key program staffAccomplished most of Partnership Agenda SWM objectivesMoved nearly all SWM responsibilities from DEQ and CBLAD to DCR, effective July 1, 2004DEQ retained responsibility for issuing industrial SWM permits
242004: Beginning of Stormwater Management in Virginia Since 2004 Stormwater quality and quantity management are mandatory throughout Virginia
25Impact of the 2004 Legislation on Clean Water Act Implementation in Virginia DEQDCRWetlandsE&SNPDES Industrial FacilitiesVSMPWastewater Treatment PlantsMS4TMDLConstruction General PermitsNon Point-SourceNutrient ManagementChesapeake Bay Local Assistance
26ImplementationThe Soil and Water Conservation Board passed a motion on July 21, 2005 authorizing the development of a Notice of Intended Regulatory Action (NOIRA).With significant stakeholder involvement, completed regulation revision in two separate regulatory actionsPart 13-Fees, effective February 3, 2010Parts 1, 2 and 3-Definitions, Technical Criteria and Local Programs, effective September 13, 2011Included delayed implementation and grandfathered sections to establish stormwater programs.
27Issues encountered during the development of the 2011 Virginia Stormwater Regulations: Highlighted inconsistencies and contradictions between the CBA, VESCL, VSMADifference between localities located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and those that are notNo good guidance on training and certification
28House Bill 1065 (Integration Bill) Amends the Erosion and Sediment Control Law, the Stormwater Management Act and the Chesapeake Bay Act to remove inconsistencies and contradictions between the three laws.
29What the Integration Bill does: Makes the definition section consistent across the three actsRequires all counties cities and towns that are MS4s in Virginia to adopt a VSMP programAllows non MS4 towns to adopt a program or be subject to the program of the county where the town is located
30What the Integration Bill does: Requires that you have an approved E&S plan and coverage under VSMP before land disturbance can take placeEstablishes a VSMP and VESCPEliminates the Chesapeake Bay Local Assistance Board and transfers oversight of the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act to the Virginia Soil and WaterConservation Board
31What the Integration Bill does not do: It does not change any of the CBPA requirements (does not eliminate the need to comply with the act)It does not make the CBPA applicable statewideIt does not change the area (localities) that the original CBPA applies to
32What the Integration Bill does not do: Separate approved E&S plans and the Stormwater Permits are still required before starting land disturbance (more than one approval required)There are still different permit thresholds for an E&S plan (10,000 and 2,500 sf) and a Stormwater Permit (1 acre)
33The SWA (after HB1065) 10.1-603.2 Definitions Description unavailable:01 Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail.(For contingent repeal, see Editor's note) Recovery of administrative costs:1 Powers and duties of the Virginia Soil and Water Conservation BoardMonitoring, reports, investigations, inspections, and stop work orders:2 State permitsDepartment to review VSMPsEstablishment of Virginia stormwater management programs:1 Right of entry:2 Information to be furnishedDevelopment of regulations:3 Private rights; liability:1 Virginia Stormwater Management Fund established:4 Enforcement by injunction, etc:5 Testing validity of regulations; judicial review:2 Education and training programs.Annual standards and specifications for state agencies, federal entities, and other specified entities:6 Right to hearing:7 HearingsDuties of the DepartmentAppealsAuthorization for more stringent ordinances:1 Appeal to Court of AppealsRegulated activities; submission and approval of a permit application; security for performance; exemptionsPenalties, injunctions, and other legal actions:1 Enforcement authority of MS4 localities`Cooperation with federal and state agencies:1 Nutrient credit use and additional off-site options for construction activities
34(some important changes to the Act) The SWA (after HB1065)(some important changes to the Act)
35The SWA (after HB 1065)In the Definitions (§ ) defines: Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act land-disturbing activity as “land-disturbing activity … that result in a land disturbance equal or greater than 2,500 square feet and less than one acre in all areas of jurisdiction designates as subject to the regulations adopted pursuant to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act.”
36The SWA (after HB 1065)In the Definitions (§ ) defines: Virginia Stormwater Program or VSMP as “a program approved by the Board after September 13, 2011, that has been established by a VSMP authority to manage the quality and quantity of runoff resulting from land-disturbing activities …”
37The SWA (after HB 1065)In the Definitions (§ ) defines: Virginia Stormwater Program authority or VSMP authority include localities, state entities. Federal entities, and “linear project companies.”
38The SWA (after HB 1065)In the Definitions (§ ) defines: Watershed … “In karst areas, the karst feature to which water drains may be considered the single outlet for the watershed.”
39§ 10.1-603.3 Establishment of VSMPs All Counties, Cities and MS4 Towns must adopt a VSMP by July 1, 2014Non-MS4 Towns have an option to adopt a VSMP or be subject to the County VSMP
40§ 10.1-603.4. Development of regulations A. The Board is authorized to adopt regulations that specify minimum technical criteria and administrative procedures for Virginia Stormwater Management Programs.(establishes fees, runoff requirements/reduction, LID, water re-use, innovative methods)
41§ 10.1-603.4:2. Education and training programs. A. The Board shall issue certificates of competence concerning the content and application of specified subject areas of this article and accompanying regulations, including program administration, plan review, and project inspection, to personnel of VSMP authorities and to any other persons who have completed training programs or in other ways demonstrated adequate knowledge to the satisfaction of the Board. ….
42§ 10.1-603.5. Annual standards and specifications …. A. State entities, including the Department and the Department of Transportation, and for linear projects set out in subsection B, electric, natural gas, and telephone utility companies, interstate and intrastate natural gas pipeline companies, and railroad companies shall, and federal entities and authorities created pursuant to § may, annually submit a single set of standards and specifications for Department approval that describes how land-disturbing activities shall be conducted.
43§ 10.1-603.8. Regulated activities A person shall not conduct any land-disturbing activity until he has submitted a permit application to the VSMP authority that includes a state VSMP permit registration statement and, after July 1, 2014, a stormwater management plan, and has obtained VSMP authority approval to begin land disturbance. …. VSMP authority has 60 days for review
44§ 10.1-603.8. Regulated activities (Exemptions) MiningAgricultureSingle family residences (< 2,500 sf in CBPA Areas)Areas < 1 acre, unless in CBPA Area (E&S <10,000 sf)Sanitary sewer and CSO dischargesReclamation areasRoutine maintenanceResponse to emergencies
45§ 10.1-603.8:1. Nutrient Credit Use .… Provides and option to use Nutrient Credits in the same tributary to offset impacts from development. (not quantity)Conditions:Less than 5 acre disturbanceOnly for areas that require less than 10 lbs of P reduction per yearAlternatives are considered (i.e., 75% reduction is achieved on site)