2 Matter CyclesThe Law of Conservation of Matter states that matter is neither created or destroyedIn biological systems, this also holds trueWe will be focusing on four matter cycles, also called nutrient or biogeochemical cyclesThese are the Carbon, Water (hydrological), Nitrogen and Phosphorus cycles
4 The Carbon (C) CycleEven though it cycles we are going to start in the atmosphereCO2 (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere is picked up by photoautotrophs and turned into sugarsThese sugars support the building of C containing molecules that make up living organismsAnother organism eats the plants, transferring the C to the next organism
5 The Carbon (C) CycleThis C may be passed on to another organism if it gets eatenCO2 is reenters the atmosphere by cellular respiration from most organismsDead organisms and waste decomposes and more CO2 is reenters the atmosphereFossil fuels are underground stores of C, when dug up are burned (combustion) as petroleum, natural gas or coal; they add additional C as to our environment as CO2Excess CO2 is absorbed in bodies of water
6 The Carbon (C) CycleCO2 is an important Greenhouse gas helping keep the planet at a relatively stable temperatureExcess burning of fossil fuels by industry and transportation has increased the amount of ground level and atmospheric C on our planet and may be accelerating climate change.
8 The Water Cycle (hydrological) Evaporation-water enters the atmospherePrecipitation-water condenses and leaves the atmosphere as rain, sleet or snow and ends up on land and can –Runoff into surface water orInfiltrate (or percolate) into land as groundwater orFreeze and accumulate as iceOr ends up in the ocean or other surface waterTranspiration –water leaves plants and enters the atmosphere
9 The Water Cycle (hydrological) Humans interrupt the water cycle byOver pumping ground waterCreating many impervious surfaces (buildings, concrete and asphalt) so that water cannot reenter the ground and refill ground waterPolluting available surface and ground waterBuilding damsGrowing thirsty plants where they are not adapted to grow
12 The Nitrogen Cycle78% of the atmosphere is Nitrogen, N2, is the major source of this vital element which is essential to make proteins in all living organismsThere is ONLY one kind of organism that can take N2 from the atmosphere and they are called N fixing bacteriaThese soil dwelling N fixing bacteria then make N available to plants
13 The Nitrogen CyclePlants use the N, now as nitrate or ammonium and make proteinsThese plants are eaten and the N as protein is passed on to the consumerLightning strikes can also fix atmospheric N2 in the soilN2 can return to the atmosphere by denitrifying bacteria in wet soilN can also returned to the soil by decomposition of waste or dead organisms
14 The Nitrogen Cycle Humans impact the N cycle by Manmade fertilizer high in NBurning of petroleum by internal combustion engines (cars) produces large amounts of N compounds that cause acid rain by forming nitric acid when mixing with water in the atmosphere
16 The Phosphorus CycleUnlike all the other matter cycles, Phosphorus, P, NEVER cycles through the atmosphereP is important both as part of DNA and cell membranesP is MOSTLY found in rockP is an important limiting factor in plant growth
17 The Phosphorus Cycle P is picked up by plants from the soil The plants are eaten and P is obtained by the consumers from eating the plantsThen the P goes to the next consumerP renters the ground by waste or decompositionWeathering of rock is vital for the P cycle as is the water cycle for the movement of P
18 The Phosphorus CycleHumans impact the P cycle by adding large amounts of inorganic fertilizer high in phosphorus which enters surface and ground waterFarm animal waste from large farms is high in P and can also enter the water cycleThese large amounts of P can cause eutrophication, rapid and large growth plants and algae, of bodies of water which chokes out other aquatic life forms
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