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Stored Grain Insect Management Doug Johnson Extension Entomologist.

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Presentation on theme: "Stored Grain Insect Management Doug Johnson Extension Entomologist."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stored Grain Insect Management Doug Johnson Extension Entomologist

2 General Management Recommendations Clean the bins thoroughly! Fumigate beneath perforated floors Treat the interior and exterior of bins Control Moisture Control Temperature Monitor Insect Activity

3 Secondary Feeders Flour Beetles Rusty Grain Beetle

4 Indian Meal Moth

5 Lesser Grain Borer in Wheat Primary Feeder

6 Rice Weevil Adult Primary Feeder

7 Rice Weevil Larva

8 Number of granary weevils in 80 o F wheat at selected intervals starting with 30 insects In a non-limiting environment insect populations increase at an INCREASING rate!

9 The starting population size makes a difference!

10 Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of rice weevils placed in wheat % Moisture Temperature AND Moisture

11 Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of rice weevils placed in wheat % Moisture Temperature

12 Number of offspring 5 months after 50 pairs of rice weevils placed in wheat % Moisture

13 Aeration Controllers

14 Pre-Filling Pesticides Application under the perforated floor – Fumigation Application to the interior walls – Liquid – Dust Application to the exterior walls

15 The starting population size makes a difference!


17 During Filling Fumigation during filling – Concentration in the bin? – No residual control – are there insects present? Liquid application to the grain stream -Are there insects present? -Insecticides break down rapidly in a hot bin!

18 Admixture to bulk Grain Empty Bin Top Dress Field Corn Pop Corn Grain Sorg. SoyWheatBarleyOatsRye Actellic Biobit (& others) Centynal Diacon-D Insecto Sensat Storcide II Tempo 1 B.t. products (Biobit etc.) will control only caterpillars not beetles and is applied to the top 4” of Grain. 2 Tempo (cyfluthrin) may not be applied to grain. Empty Bin Only, May NOT be applied to grain

19 Insecticides Actellic (Pirimiphos-methyl) (1B) Biobit / Dipel others (Bacillus thuringensis) (11A) Centynal (deltamethrin) (3A) Diacon-D (S-Methoprene) (7A) Insecto (silicon dioxide) Sensat/Contain (Spinosad) (5) Storecide II (deltamethrin (3A)+ chlorprifos-methyl (1B) ) Tempo (cyfluthrin) (3A)

20 Sanitation, Temperature, Moisture Even if you decide to use insecticides…. these three cultural controls will make your insecticides more effective.

21 Monitoring

22 General Recommendations Clean the bins thoroughly! Fumigate beneath perforated floors Treat the interior and exterior of bins Control Moisture Control Temperature Monitor Insect Activity

23 Sanitation, Sanitation, Sanitation Temperature, Temperature, Temperature Moisture, Moisture, Moisture Aeration, Aeration, Aeration How many times do I need so say it?

24 If you only remember one thing! Store Clean Dry Grain In Clean Dry Bins

25 TemperaturePelletsTablets Below 40 degrees F Do Not Fumigate 40 - 53 degrees F 8 days10 days 54 - 59 degrees F 4 days5 days 60 - 68 degrees F 3 days4 days Above 68 degrees F 2 days3 days Minimum Exposure Periods for PHOSTOXIN

26 Notification Requirements Authorities and On-Site Workers: As required by local regulations, notify the appropriate local officials (fire depart- ment, police department, etc.) of the impending fumigation. Provide to the officials a MSDS and complete label for the product and any other technical information deemed useful. Offer to review this information with the local official(s). Incidents Involving These Products: Registrants must be informed of any incident involving the use of this product. Please call 1-800-308-4856 or DEGESCH AMERICA, INC. (540) 234-9281/ 1-800-330-2525 so the incident can be reported to Federal and State Authorities. Theft of Products: Immediately report to the local police department theft of metal phosphide fumigants.

27 Gas ConcentrationRespiratory Protection Less than 0.3 ppmNone required 0.3 - 15 ppm (or escape from levels up to 1,500 PPM) NIOSH/MSHA approved full face gas mask - hydrogen phosphide canister combination. More than 15 ppm NIOSH/MSHA approved self- contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) RESPIRATORY PROTECTION


29 Fumigation Management Plan Sec. 21 (of label) REQUIRED WRITTEN FUMIGATION MANAGEMENT PLAN (FMP). A FMP must be written PRIOR to all applications. A FMP must be devised to cover application, exposure period, aeration and disposal of the fumigant,…

30 Equipment Needed Man-in-Bin sign placed near the control panel or auger power control. 2- or 3-inch tape, spray adhesive, and adhesive for polyethylene sheets. Applicator’s manual and current label. Sufficient fumigant for the volume of the bin. Tape measure to calculate volume of grain to be treated. 2- to 6-mils polyethylene film large enough to cover the grain surface. Attach a rope to the polyethylene film for easy removal after fumigation. Cotton gloves for handling phosphine-type fumigant — do not handle tablets with bare hands or wet gloves. All fumigations should be done by at least two people, each equipped with a full set of safety equipment, including chemical-resistant gloves, protective clothing, etc. If entrance into the structure is required for fumigating the grain, two licensed people MUST be present.

31 Equipment Needed Proper respiratory protection for all personnel involved in the fumigation. Check the fumigant label for specific requirements. Probes for applying aluminum phosphide tablets. Safety rope to attach to anyone climbing into a bin, and long enough to extend through the bin access point and strong enough so rescue personnel can drag a victim to the exit if necessary. Shovels to level grain mass prior to treatment. Grain thermometer to measure grain temperature prior to treatment at locations throughout the grain mass. Fumigation placards. A lock to keep unauthorized personnel out of the building. Be sure everyone is out before attaching the lock. Monitoring equipment to check gas concentration available from the vendors listed at the end of this guide.

32 Temperature X Concentration X Time Width Length Height Successful Fumigation Requires hold the gas in a three dimensional structure Similar to filling a balloon with air.

33 Type of Fumigation Pellets Tablets Dosage Range 1. Vertical Storages (such as 200-900/1000 bu. 40-180/1000 bu. silos, concrete bins, steel 150-700/1000 cu.ft. 30-140/1000 cu.ft. bins, etc.) 2. Farm Bins (Butler Type) 450-900/1000 bu. 90-180/1000 bu. 350-725/1000 cu.ft. 70-145/1000 cu.ft. APPLICATOR’S MANUAL FOR PHOSTOXIN® TABLETS AND PELLETS

34 Below the perforated floor Above the grain mass Cubic feet to be Fumigated

35 SEALING THE BIN 1.) Seal all openings in the bin walls 3.) Calculate rate for the entire bin, including the unfilled roof cone. 2.) Cover the grain surface with 4mil plastic, secured at the edges --OR--

36 Sam McNeil, University of Kentucky 39’ 37,252 Bu What are we going to do with 300,000 bu. bins? Phosphine gas penetrates about 25’

37 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Wear dry gloves of cotton or other breathable material if contact with Phostoxin® tablets, pellets or dust is likely. Wear a loose fitting long sleeve shirt, long pants, shoes and socks. After fumigation activities, remove all protective clothing, aerate in a well ventilated area then wash thoroughly, separately, before re-use. If Phostoxin® tablets or pellets become trapped inside clothing, remove clothing, wash hands and exposed skin thoroughly, shower and change into clean clothing. If application of fumigant is performed from within the structure to be fumigated, approved respiratory protection against phosphine must be worn during fumigation, by all personnel in the structure (see below).

38 Distributing the Fumigant Calculate the number of tablets or pellets needed, Deposit them evenly by probing into the grain surface, Probe fumigant in on uniform grid with each probe about four or five feet apart Cover the grain surface with the plastic Attach a line to the plastic to allow removal from outside Depart the bin Seal the bin (lock)

39 The Fumigation Is Not Complete Until The Bin is Clear of Gas!!! Unseal the bin Open vents, remove plastic cover etc. Operate fans to evacuate residual gas REMEMBER – you must either have gas detection equipment or assume that there is gas remaining in the bin!

40 Important Points to Consider Fumigants are by far the most toxic products you will ever use. Fumigations should be preformed by Trained Licensed applicators. Never fewer than two people. Phostoxin will explode into fire with direct contact with water.

41 Common Ideas That Will Not Work Spraying anything through the fan. Throwing hands full of pellets across the surface of the grain. Expecting the gas to move more than 30 ft. without circulation.

42 Problem Situation: Late winter early spring – Temperature of grain, usually too low Pellets/tablets will not “gas off quickly” enough – Will not reach a control concentration – Pellets/tablets will remain in the grain unspent, until warm enough, so the grain will contain detectable / dangerous amounts of phosphine

43 Problem Situation: Grain remains in a bin that is needed for new crop. Sell the grain if anyone will take it Feed the grain to livestock Fumigate the grain before adding new grain to the bin. DO NOT store new grain with old grain!

44 Sam McNeil, University of Kentucky 39’ 37,252 Bu What are we going to do with 300,000 bu. bins? Phosphine gas penetrates about 25’

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