Presentation on theme: "The Birth of Persuasion Dr. Williams January, 2009."— Presentation transcript:
The Birth of Persuasion Dr. Williams January, 2009
The Dead Greeks Greece—known for the birth of Western Civilization Around 2,300 years ago –Socrates taught Plato –taught Aristotle Believed that argument and debate were the highest form of discussion Debate revealed highest ideals or truths-would happen throughout Greece. Ability to argue both sides of an issue was an admirable trait.
Socrates “Invented” intangible things—art of philosophical discussion Inherited money from father Spent life engaging young people from wealthy family in Athens in discussions Questioned their confidence in the truth of popular opinions –Religion, politics Youth—loved him; Adults—were leery of his influence Eventually convicted of corrupting youth and meddling with religion. Before being put to death for his crime; committed suicide We know what these men looked like because art of the time exists today.
Plato Studied under Pythagoras and Socrates Est. own academy in Athens to pass on mathematical theories and the philosophical vision of Socrates Tackled questions of morality “Can virtue be taught?” “Is it ever justified to defy the rules of the state?” Discussed the virtues of wisdom, courage, moderation, different forms of government, and the idea of a perfect society
Aristotle Spent 20 years at Plato’s Academy Became a teacher after Plato’s death and opened own school in Athens Spent life examining topics of logic, philosophy, ethics, physics, biology, politics, and rhetoric Rhetoric-art of using words effectively in speaking and writing
Use of These Ideas Today First Amendment—Founders of US believed in freedom of speech; importance of discussion Congress—Before a bill is passed, there must be discussion, argument, and debate. Senators and Congressmen can change their minds based on the debates.
Important to Know Greek-style discussion does not include loud yelling, name calling, getting angry, or personal attacks. Very RESPECTFUL
3 Modes of Persuasion According to Aristotle ALL persuasive arguments include all 3 (including writing and speaking) Ethos Pathos Logos
Ethos Base of English word ‘ethics’ Principles of right and wrong Ethos relates to the writer who must be trustworthy and hones Writer must be believable in order for reader to listen to an argument. When writing persuasively –Do not use overblown language or exaggeration –Show that you have considered the other point of view –Acknowledge the good arguments that support the opposing view and point out any flaws in the arguments or explain how your arguments outweigh the other side.
Pathos Stands for ‘emotion’ Good arguments appeal to the emotions Uses images and stories to pull at our emotions Soften and humanize facts and statistics
Logos Stands for ‘logic’ Part of the argument based on reason, facts, and sound information Foundation of a good argument Can’t have ethos without the logos Keeps the pathos from being too sentimental When persuading –Have THREE strong reasons why to back up your point of view –Back up the reason by including some of the following Facts Expert Opinions Statistics Examples Anecdotes