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Digestive Systems. Digestive Systems Overviews Objectives Describe the structures and functions of the digestive system of ruminant animals Draw the structures.

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Presentation on theme: "Digestive Systems. Digestive Systems Overviews Objectives Describe the structures and functions of the digestive system of ruminant animals Draw the structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digestive Systems

2 Digestive Systems Overviews Objectives Describe the structures and functions of the digestive system of ruminant animals Draw the structures of the digestive system of ruminant animals Label the structures of the digestive system of ruminant animals

3 Digestion Digestion: Breaking down large, nutrient macromolecules into simpler molecules for use by an organism. Food enters the mouth and goes through mechanical and chemical changes as it passes through the alimentary canal.

4 Types of Stomachs Simple Stomach –Man, Pig Complex Stomach –Cattle, Sheep, Goats Simple Stomach with enlarged ceacum –Horses, Rabbits, Guinea Pigs

5 Parts of Digestive Tract Mouth: initial opening of alimentary canal –Salivary Glands secrete juices that contain enzymes to help break up the food –Mastication chewing, crushing, preparing food for swallowing

6 Parts of Digestive Tract Pharynx: funnel shaped muscle between mouth and esophagus –part of digestive and respiratory tracts Esophagus: muscular tube connecting pharnyx to stomach –muscle contractions move food down to stomach

7 Parts of Digestive Tract Stomach: located between esophagus and small intestine – Two basics types Simple Ruminant

8 Parts of Digestive Tract Simple Stomach Humans, swine, rabbits and horses –Divided into three regions cardiac fundus pylorus

9 Simple Stomach Digestion: –is mechanical, muscle contractions –is chemical, enzymes soften and break down macromolecules of food enzymes are catalysts, they start the chemical reactions

10 Simple Stomach Enzymes that break down food –Gastric-break down proteins in stomach –Liver and pancreatic-break down fats in small intestine –Intestinal-break down carbohydrates and proteins in small intestine

11 Parts of Digestion Tract Ruminant Stomach Sheep, Cows and Goats Occupies 3/4 of the abdominal cavity

12 Four Components of Ruminant Stomach Rumen –composes 80% of ruminant stomach in mature bovine animals and 30% in young animals Reticulum –composes about 5% of bovine stomach –prevents indigestible objects from entering the stomach

13 Four Components of Ruminant Stomach Omasum –composes 7-8% of bovine stomach –absorbs mostly water Abomasum –the “true” stomach –composes 7-8% of stomach in mature animals and 70% in young animals

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15 Digestion in the Ruminant Stomach Rumination: The process of regurgitation, re-mastication, re-salivation and re- swallowing of food. Purpose: To smash and break up food which provides more surface area bacteria to break down

16 Parts of Digestive Tract Small Intestine: long, coiled tube connecting the stomach with the large intestine. –Is covered by villi which increases surface area to increase absorption –Food moves through by muscle contractions called peristaltic movement –Final breakdown and absorption of nutrients occurs here

17 Parts of the Digestive Tract Large Intestine –Includes cecum, colon and rectum –Absorbs water –Very little nutrient absorption takes place here

18 Parts of the Digestive Tract Accessory Organs Pancreas –secretes enzymes which breakdown fat and starches Liver –secrets bile which digest fats

19 The Digestion Process

20 Food is broken down Animals have digestive systems adapted to the foods that they consume Four types of digestive systems –Ruminant(polygstric) –Simple Stomach(monogastric) –Avian –Equine-modified simple stomach

21 Ruminant Digestive System Modified to handle the breakdown of large amounts of fiber

22 Ruminant Digestive System Mouth –no upper incisors, hard palate –molars for grinding coarse vegetation –saliva does not contain enzymes Esophagus –muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

23 Ruminant Digestive Systems The Four Compartmented Stomach Rumen: storage area and fermentation vat Reticulum: nails and wire may be found here-hardware stomach Omasum: eliminates excess water from feed Abomasum: true stomach, gastric juices and enzymes are secreted

24 Ruminant Digestive Systems Stomach (cont.) Regurgitation: first step in rumination –large quantities of roughage are consumed and are chewed just enough to swallow –after swallowing, regurgitation (“cud chewing”) takes place, food is re-chewed

25 Ruminant Digestive System Small Intestine –connects stomach to large intestine –food nutrients absorbed into blood –contains bile and pancreatic juices –pushes food through by muscle contractions

26 Ruminant Digestive System Large Intestine –Contains Cecum, Colon and Rectum Cecum: sac at junction of small intestine and large intestine Colon and rectum: at end of system –not as long as small intestine, but larger in diameter –water and some nutrient absorption occurs here –where residue solidifies before excretion

27 Monogastric Digestive System Characterized by inability to digest roughage efficiently

28 Objectives Describe the structures and functions of the digestive system of non-ruminant animas Draw the structures of the digestive system of non-ruminant animals Label the structure of the digestive system of non-ruminant animals

29 Monogastric Digestive System Mouth –has upper and lower incisors –digestive enzymes secreted which breaks down nutrients Esophagus –connects mouth to stomach

30 Monogastric Digestive System Stomach –secretes Hydrochloric Acid to break down nutrients –enzymes such as pepsin also secreted here –churning action mixes food –small and large intestine function just as in ruminant systems

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32 Avian Digestive Systems Characterized by several organs not found in other species that are adapted for grinding hard or encased food

33 Avian Digestive Systems Mouth –no teeth which leads to the saying “scarce as a hen’s teeth!!” –Salivation excretion moistens food Esophagus –has a modification called the “crop” which stores and moistens food –connects mouth and stomach

34 Avian Digestive Systems Stomach –Contains two parts Proventriculus: same as monogastric stomach and provides digestive excretions Gizzard: located after proventriculus, very muscular, used to grind food

35 Avian Digestive Systems Small Intestine –similar functions as in ruminants and monogastric systems Large Intestine –similar functions as in ruminants and monogastric systems –“cloaca”: chamber into which urinary and genital canals open –“ceca”: aids in fiber digestion and absorption

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37 Equine Digestive Systems Characterized by non-ruminant animals that consume and digest feeds high in fiber

38 Equine Digestive Systems Mouth –intact top and bottom incisors –molars adapted to chewing fibrous feeds –no digestive enzymes in saliva Esophagus –not well adapted for regurgitation –connects mouth and stomach

39 Equine Digestive System Stomach –similar to monogastric system Small intestine –similar to monogastric and ruminant systems –no gall bladder to store bile –enlarged cecum to aid in fiber breakdown

40 Equine Digestive System Large Intestine –similar to monogastric systems –cecum (at junction of small and large intestines) and colon take up most of the volume of the equine digestive system

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42 Accessory Organs Organs that aid in the digestive process without actually being part of the digestive system

43 Accessory Organs Pancreas –produces and secretes digestive enzymes –produces insulin which regulates carbohydrate metabolism Liver –produces bile-breaks down fatty acids –stores iron, handles fats and carbohydrates in the blood

44 The End!!


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