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Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing in the Middle Grades (5-7) OSPI Instructional.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing in the Middle Grades (5-7) OSPI Instructional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing in the Middle Grades (5-7) OSPI Instructional Support Materials for Writing Version Two – June 2007 These materials were developed by Washington teachers to help students improve their writing.

2 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. To the Teacher Slides 1-14 are for teacher use. They include alignment with the GLEs, links to the WASL, and bibliography. Slides are a Table of Contents. When you are teaching the lessons, begin with slide 15. To use any lesson, you must print and review the notes pages for the lesson. This is done in the print menu. It is different for PCs and Macs, but you will need to find “Notes pages” or “Notes” respectively in the print menu.The notes pages contain crucial instructions and supplementary materials for successful implementation. Most of these lessons include partner and/or group work. A system should be in place for partner and group work (e.g., what are the rules and expectations). Lessons in these modules need to have extended practice. They are not meant to be individual, one-day lessons. As you do shared writing, keep charts of strategies being learned so students can refer back, or have students make their own copies and put them in a folder or notebook.

3 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. OSPI Writing Instructional Support Materials Core Development Team  Nikki Elliott-Schuman - OSPI, Project Director  Charlotte Carr - Retired Seattle SD, Facilitator  Barbara Ballard - Coupeville School District  Cathie Day - Ellensburg School District  Lori Hadley - Puyallup School District  Glenn Kessinger - Yakima School District  Courtney McCoy - Vancouver School District  Sharon Schilperoort - OSPI  April Yantis - Shelton School District

4 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs – Writing 5678 Demonstrates understanding of different purposes for writing. Writes to learn (e.g., math learning logs, reflections, double- entry logs, steps/strategies used to solve math problems), to tell a story, to explain, and to persuade. Demonstrates understanding of different purposes for writing. Writes to pursue a personal interest, to explain, or to persuade. Demonstrates understanding of different purposes for writing. Writes …to explain, to persuade …or a specified audience (e.g., writes to persuade classmates about a position on required school uniforms). Demonstrates understanding of different purposes for writing. Writes to…explain, to persuade, to inform…a specified audience (e.g., writes to persuade community to build a skate park).

5 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs – Writing 5/678 Analyzes ideas, selects a narrow topic, and elaborates using specific details and/or examples. Narrows topic with controlling idea. Selects details relevant to the topic to extend ideas and develop elaboration. Uses personal experiences, observations, and research to support opinions and ideas. Analyzes ideas, selects a manageable topic, and elaborates using specific, relevant details and/or examples. Presents a central idea, theme, and manageable thesis while maintaining a consistent focus. Selects specific details relevant to the topic to extend ideas and develop elaboration. Uses personal experiences, observations, and/or research to support opinions and ideas. Analyzes ideas, selects a manageable topic, and elaborates using specific, relevant details and/or examples. Presents a central idea, theme, and manageable thesis while maintaining a consistent focus. Selects specific details relevant to the topic to extend ideas or develop elaboration. Uses personal experiences, observations, and/or research to support opinions and ideas.

6 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs – Writing 5678 Uses an effective organizational structure. Writes in a logically organized progression of unified paragraphs. Develops an interesting introduction in expository writing. Develops an effective ending that goes beyond a repetition of the introduction. Sequences ideas and uses transitional words and phrases to link events, reasons, facts, and opinions within and between paragraphs. Organizes clearly. Uses an effective organizational structure. Writes unified, cohesive paragraphs. Constructs an introduction using varying approaches. Constructs an ending/conclusion that goes beyond a repetition of the introduction. Varies leads, endings, and types of conflicts in narratives. Sequences ideas and uses transitions to link events, reasons, facts, and opinions). Organizes clearly. Analyzes and selects an effective organizational structure. Writes unified, cohesive paragraphs. Composes an engaging introduction. Composes an ending/conclusion that is more than a repetition of the introduction. Uses transitions to show relationships among ideas. Uses effective organizational patterns as determined by purpose. Analyzes and selects an effective organizational structure. Writes unified, cohesive paragraphs. Develops a compelling introduction. Composes an effective ending/ conclusion that is more than a repetition of the introduction. Uses transitional words and phrases between paragraphs to show logical relationships among ideas. Selects and uses effective organizational patterns as determined by purpose.

7 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs – Writing 5678 Applies understanding that different audiences and purposes affect writer’s voice. Writes with a clearly defined voice appropriate to audience. Writes in appropriate and consistent voice in narrative, informational, and persuasive writing. Uses language appropriate for a specific audience and purpose. Uses precise language. Selects words for effect. Applies understanding that different audiences and purposes affect writer’s voice. Writes with a clearly defined voice appropriate to audience. Writes in appropriate and consistent voice in narrative, informational, and persuasive writing. Supports a position in persuasive text from first- person or third-person point of view. Analyzes and selects language appropriate for specific audiences and purposes. Selects and uses persuasive techniques. Searches for alternatives to commonly used words, particularly in persuasive writing and poetry. Applies understanding that different audiences and purposes affect writer’s voice. Writes with a clearly defined voice appropriate to audience. Writes in appropriate and consistent voice in narrative, informational, and persuasive writing. Writes from more than one point of view or perspective. Analyzes and selects language appropriate for specific audiences and purposes. Selects and uses precise language to persuade or inform. Uses persuasive techniques. Applies understanding that different audiences and purposes affect writer’s voice. Writes with a clearly defined voice appropriate to audience. Writes in an individual, informed voice in expository, technical, and persuasive writing. Writes from more than one point of view or perspective. Analyzes and selects language appropriate for specific audiences and purposes. Selects and uses precise language to persuade or inform. Selects and uses persuasive techniques. Considers connotation and denotation when selecting words.

8 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs Across the Curriculum Reading 5th - Analyze text for fact and opinion. - Understand the author’s tone and use of persuasive devices. 6th - Understand how to verify content validity. - Analyze the effectiveness of the author’s tone and use of persuasive devices for a target audience. 7th - Evaluate the author’s reasoning and validity of the author’s position. - Analyze the effectiveness of the author’s tone and use of persuasive devices. 8th - Analyze and evaluate text for validity and accuracy. - Analyze the effectiveness of the author’s use of persuasive devices to influence an audience.

9 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs Across the Curriculum Mathematics 5th Analyze procedures used to solve problems in familiar situations. Understand how to organize information for a given purpose. 6th/7th/8th Analyze procedures and results in various situations. Apply organization skills for a given purpose. Science 5th Understand how to report investigations and explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes. 6th/7th/8th Apply understanding of how to report investigations and explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes.

10 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Alignment with the GLEs Across the Curriculum Science 5th Understand how to report investigations and explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes. 6th/7th/8th Apply understanding of how to report investigations and explanations of objects, events, systems, and processes.

11 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Links to the WASL Persuasive writing is one of the two modes/purposes tested on the WASL at grades 7 and 10. It is essential that students are prepared to write persuasively in order to pass the WASL.

12 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Bibliography De Witt Spurgin, Sally. The Power to Persuade, 3rd ed. Prentice- Hall, Gere, Anne Ruggles. Writing on Demand, Heinemann, Kolln, Martha. Rhetorical Grammar, 2nd ed. Allyn and Bacon, Lunsford, Andrea A. & Ruszkiewicz, John J. Everything’s an Argument - Writer’s in Training: A guide to developing a composition program, Dale Seymour Publications, Rosenwasser, David and Jill Stephen. Writing Analytically, 2nd ed. Orlando, Harcourt, OSPI website - Assessment > writing assessment > anchor sets annotations, grade 7.www.k12.wa.us

13 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Table of Contents Baseline Persuasive Writing - slide 15 Overview -- Purpose of Exposition vs. Persuasion - slides Effective Persuasive Essentials - slides  Audience Awareness - slides  Clear Position - slides  Persuasive Language - slides  Organizational Structures - slides  Concession / Rebuttal - slides  Causal Chain - slides  Order of Importance - slides  Persuasive Introductions - slides  Persuasive Conclusions - slides

14 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Table of Contents – continued Persuasive Strategies - slides  Expert testimony - slides  Anecdote (Self as Expert) - slides  Compromise and Problem / Solution - slides  Statistics - slides  Rhetorical Questions - slides Assessment  Scoring guide  Scoring papers

15 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Prompt – baseline paper Some seventh graders attend school where their teachers do not accept late homework. Your principal is thinking of making this a rule at your school. Take a position on this rule. Write a multiple- paragraph letter to your principal to persuade him or her to support your position.

16 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. What is Persuasive Writing? What is persuasion?  Read Letter to Principal Scaddilybob.  What is the purpose of this writing?  Who is the audience?  What does the writer want (position)?  What are some persuasive words and phrases in the letter?

17 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasive Writing What is the difference?

18 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasive – Sorting Group Activity 1.Sort your envelope of cards into two columns titled “Expository Writing” and “Persuasive Writing.” 2.Try to come to agreement in your group. 3.Be prepared to defend your choice with evidence from the card. 4.If you finish before the rest of the class, match up the persuasive characteristic with its expository partner.

19 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasion Expository writing  has a narrow topic.  stays focused on the main ideas.  is elaborated using reasons, well-chosen and specific details, examples, and/or anecdotes to support ideas. Persuasive writing  has a clear position and is focused on that position.  has more than one argument to support a position.  is elaborated by using reasons, well-chosen and specific details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence to support arguments.

20 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasion Expository writing  includes information that is interesting, thoughtful, and necessary for the audience.  uses transitions to connect ideas. Persuasive writing  is organized to make the best case for my position.  uses transitions to connect position, arguments, and evidence.

21 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasion Expository writing  is organized with an introduction, supporting paragraphs with main points and elaboration, and an effective conclusion. Persuasive writing  is organized to make the best case with an opening, including the position statement, and an effective persuasive conclusion, such as a call to action.  anticipates and refutes the opposing position.

22 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository vs. Persuasion Expository writing  shows care about the topic with voice and language appropriate for the audience.  uses specific words and phrases that help the reader understand ideas. Persuasive writing  shows commitment to position with voice and language appropriate for the audience.  uses specific words, phrases, and persuasive strategies that urge or compel to support a position.

23 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expository Example Expository writing is explaining.  I would include my skates because I love to ice skate. I especially love ice dancing, a form of ice skating in which you have a partner, don’t jump or do lifts above the boy’s head, and are partly judged on the quality of your edges and interpretation of the music.

24 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Example Persuasive writing is convincing.  Some late work counts as 70% credit, giving kids a C- which is passing. Some kids are happy because they think a C- is a good grade. How can we allow students to turn in all of their work late but still have a passing grade? The kids that have C-’s don’t care about their work because even if they turn it in late, they can still get a passing grade. These kids have sort of twisted the grading system to benefit themselves. This can no longer be allowed.

25 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Purposes of Persuasive Writing

26 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something. Discussion: Where do we see persuasive writing?

27 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Support a Cause

28 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Urge People To Action

29 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Make A Change

30 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Prove Something Wrong

31 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Stir Up Sympathy

32 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Create Interest

33 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Get People To Agree With You

34 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to… Purpose Support a cause Urge people to action Make a change Prove something wrong Persuasive Statement Please support my soccer team by buying discount coupons. Vote for Pedro. The principal should let us wear hats. Cars do not cause global warming.

35 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to… Purpose Stir up sympathy Create interest Get people to agree with you Persuasive Statement If you don’t adopt this dog, it could be put to death. Better grades get you a better job and more money. I am sure you’ll agree Snickers are the best candy bars.

36 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. What Persuades You? Why do you decide to agree with someone’s idea? How do you convince others to agree with you? How persuasive are you?

37 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Cookie Lesson You will be working in small groups. There are only enough cookies today for one group. Think of reasons why your group should get the cookies. Persuade the class that your group should be rewarded. Your group must work together and write your best reasons. You have 15 minutes.

38 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Present Your Case Appoint a member of your group to draw a number to decide the order of the presentations. Decide how you will present your information (one or more people). Present your case when it’s your turn. You will have up to three minutes. Teams should present without interruption or questions. Write down each number. Take notes about each team’s positions, reasons, and support

39 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Vote and Discuss By each number, write a summary sentence for each group’s position. Vote for the group that presented the best case.  A group cannot vote for itself.  Each individual can only vote once. Discuss why you voted the way you did.

40 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Effective Persuasion Essentials Audience Awareness Clear Position Persuasive Language Organizational Structure

41 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing Persuasive writing is recursive in nature. These essential elements are constantly working together to make the best case for the writer’s position.

42 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness Providing information an audience may need and/or anticipating an audience’s point of view

43 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness Know your audience before you start writing.  The audience is who will read your writing.  The audience may be your teacher, your parents, your friends, or the President of the United States.

44 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness Knowing who your audience is helps you to decide:  How to connect with the ideas, knowledge, or beliefs of the person or group.  What information to include.  What arguments will persuade him/her.  How informal or formal the language should be.

45 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness – example Dear Mrs. Gillingham, Imagine you were a student, sitting in algebra when your teacher says, “Okay, get out your homework.” You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize -- oh no! You left your homework at home, perfectly done.

46 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness – your turn In your group, write a short letter asking for the newest video game. Choose someone from your group to draw a card naming your audience. The teacher holds the cards. Once your audience has been identified, think about the best information and arguments that you can make. Consider persuasive language that will connect with your audience.

47 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness – follow up Each group will read its letter without naming the audience. As you listen, write down who you think the audience might be. Discuss why it was difficult or easy to figure out the audience.

48 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position A position or argument; the audience knows exactly what the writer wants

49 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position The writer must clearly state or imply his/her position and stay with that position. Generally, the position is stated in the opening paragraph or introduction.

50 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position – example I am writing this letter to persuade you to make a rule against turning in late homework assignments. At first that sounds unbearable for us kids, but when you really look at it you see it does more good than bad. Just simply turning in our homework on time prepares us for the hurdles life throws at us. Have you ever thought to look at it from the teacher’s point of view? They don’t really want to grade a late assignment from last quarter. Having no late homework will also be very pleasing to those of us who get their work done on time by not seeing kids with A’s that haven’t turned a single assignment in on time.

51 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Find the Position Statement Imagine you were a student sitting in your math class when your teacher says, “Okay, get out your homework!” You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize – oh no! You left our homework at home perfectly done. The teacher comes by your desk and you say, “I am sorry. I left my homework at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it.” Your teacher smiles at you. “It’s okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow.” Isn’t that a better situation than “Oh too bad! You don’t get any credit for it.”? Late homework should be accepted, and I will tell you why.

52 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Find the Position Statement My feeling about the rule that teachers do not accept late homework is definitely a mixed one. I know that the rule has its pros and cons, but I really do think that the cons heavily outweigh the pros. I would like to show you, the principal, my position on this rule in a little bit more depth.

53 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Words and phrases that urge or compel the reader to support the position of the author

54 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Persuasive language is choosing just the right words or phrases to use at just the right time with just the right audience.  Precise words trigger strong feelings.  Seizes  Snarls  Dumbstruck  Repeated words or phrases for emphasis  I have a dream…(Martin Luther King, Jr.)  Different connotations  Mean or strict  Died or passed away  Used or pre-owned

55 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Find Words that Could Be More Persuasive You are a young middle school student. Essay in one hand, you go to class. “I’m done!” You are glad. The teacher takes the essay out of your hands and throws it away. She says, “It’s a day late!” You look at your hard work. The teacher didn’t look at it! The No Late Homework Rule is bad.

56 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Imagine yourself as a young middle school student. Five page essay in one hand, you rush into the classroom. “I’m done! I’m done!” You pant, beaming proudly. The teacher seizes the essay out of your grasp and tears it to pieces before your eyes. She snarls, “It’s a day late!” On your knees, you stare dumbstruck at your hard work, ripped to shreds. The teacher didn’t even glance at it! The No Late Homework Rule is a cruel, horrible rule.

57 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Putting it together – Audience Awareness, Clear Position, Precise Language The Disney Corporation is giving away an all-expense paid trip for one class to go to Disneyland. Write several position statements that state what you want. Chart ideas and beliefs that might connect with the Corporation and persuade them to give your class the trip. Also chart precise language that would be appropriate for the audience as well as persuasive.

58 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion – follow up As a class:  Each pair reads its letter.  Discuss decisions that each pair made (audience awareness, position statement, precise language).  Discuss the effectiveness of each pair’s arguments.

59 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structures Concession/Rebuttal Causal Chain Order of Importance Introductions/Conclusions

60 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structures Persuasive organization frequently looks very different from expository organization. As we look at different structures, we will see what that means regarding the organization of the paper.

61 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure – Concession/Rebuttal Acknowledging or recognizing the opposing viewpoint, conceding something that has some merit, and then refuting it with another argument

62 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. My Turn! Your Turn! (Preparing for Concession/Rebuttal) Get with a partner. Choose one rule in your school that needs to be revised, added, or eliminated, and think about why. Each partner may choose a different rule. Each of you takes the role of a student. Write the rule, what needs to be changed, and why.

63 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. My Turn! Your Turn! Trade your paper with your partner. Acting as principal, respond to your partner’s paper and write back with the principal’s arguments. When you get your own paper back, respond again, this time as a student. Repeat. Repeat once more. Your paper, when complete, will show two points of view (an argument and counter argument).

64 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Group Discussion Say goodbye to your partner and find two other people for a discussion. Each student reads his/her own paper aloud. Select one paper from your group. Discuss and write the answers to the following questions based on that paper:  Which arguments were effective?  What made them effective?  Were you persuaded? Why or why not?

65 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal Concession and rebuttal (or counter argument). In a concession, you acknowledge that certain opposing arguments have some truth. The rebuttal explains how this does not weaken your argument. This makes you sound open–minded. This sounds like... I know what other kids would say… I have a possible solution to this problem. I realize most teachers don’t want cell phones in class because they cause problems, but…

66 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Develop your Point with Concession/Rebuttal Concession/rebuttal from the “late homework” prompt – …I’d want all the icky procrastinators to get no credit, because they didn’t turn the work in on time and I did. I’m one for fairness, and a fair school is a great school! Sure it sounds mean, but some people need to take up the reins and learn some responsibility.

67 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal How many of you have been in a discussion with someone and you remember saying, “Yeah, that’s true, but…” This is concession/rebuttal. Let’s list several examples where this applies.

68 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Transitional Phrases – Concession/Rebuttal It is true that…however…therefore… Certainly…but…in short… Admittedly…on the other hand…so… Of course…nevertheless…as a result… Obviously…on the contrary…finally… Sure…however…in addition…

69 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Find a possible place to add a concession and rebuttal. Write a concession and rebuttal that will strengthen your argument. Share what you have written with someone else, discuss its effectiveness, and revise if needed.

70 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure – Causal Chain A connected series of cause/effect events

71 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Example of a Causal Chain This is the house that Jack built. This is the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the rat That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built. This is the cat That killed the rat That ate the malt That lay in the house that Jack built…

72 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain – examples Causal chain is a chain of cause/effect events (e.g., “a” causes “b” causes “c,” etc.) This organizational strategy can be used for an entire essay or for a portion of an essay. If you give us more time for a break, we will get more homework done, so our grades will be better, and our parents will be proud. If your mom forgets to buy gas, then you will run out of gas on the way to school, and then you will be late and get detention.

73 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Develop your Point with the Causal Chain Mrs. Rawlins, I do not want you to put into effect the rule of no late homework. One reason is the grades. You see, it is scientifically proven that teenagers between the ages of eleven to sixteen need at least nine hours of sleep every night for their brain to function well. If every teen in this middle school had to stay up later to complete their homework in order for it not to be late, their grades would plummet accordingly. Soon, grades would degenerate and dwindle to the average of a C or lower in most middle and high schools. All of this just because of the ‘no late work’ policy.

74 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain – example If the teachers of Pacific do not allow the students to turn in their homework late then the students will learn to finish their work on time, correct? This may be, but the Sink or Swim philosophy often leaves many students failing... If a student does not see themselves as being able to finish the assignment on time, they may simply decide to not do it. This would not only cause the student’s grades to fall, but also his or her teacher would likely spend unnecessary time trying to persuade the student to do work. This would not be only one student though! Many students would fall into this downward spiral of not doing their homework. This would result in many declining grades… This in turn would result in the school’s reputation declining… So how do we solve this?

75 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. If you give a mouse a cookie, He’s going to ask for a glass of milk. When you give him the milk, He’ll probably ask you for a straw. When he’s finished, he’ll ask for a napkin. ? Try it Together

76 Vote Yes-Yes on Feb. 14 Do you value quality education? Do you believe that the children in our community are our future? If you have answered “yes” to these questions, here’s another one that perhaps you should stop and think about before you answer. Do you plan to support the growth in the Clear Creek Amana School District by voting Yes-Yes to the upcoming school bond issues on Feb.14? If not, you may need to re-evaluate your previous answers above. Clear Creek Amana schools are extremely overcrowded and in desperate need of additional buildings. The upcoming bond issue will not close any of the existing sites; rather, some of the bond will actually be used to upgrade the Amana and Oxford locations. Please do your own research, listen to the facts, and vote responsibly. Do not believe the rumors and other false information floating around. Schools bring residents; residents bring money to the community. Schools bring businesses; businesses bring new jobs, services and income into the community. We all have a chance on Tuesday, Feb. 14, to be active and responsible community members. Will you do your part? We urge all of you to vote Yes-Yes to each of the ballot questions for the upcoming school bond issue. Our future, our children and our community are depending on you. Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

77 Causal Chain – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Find a possible place to add a causal chain. Write a causal chain that will strengthen your argument. Share what you have written with someone else, discuss its effectiveness, and revise if needed.

78 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure – Order of Importance Ordering arguments from least to most important (or visa versa) to persuade an audience

79 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Order of Importance Your PE teacher wants to change the activities offered in your physical education class. Identify one activity that you think should be added or dropped, and think of reasons/arguments to support your position. Organize your arguments from least important to most important. Discuss why this would be an effective way to present your arguments.

80 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Reflect Imagine that you are coaching a 7 th grader who is having trouble writing to the persuasive prompt of the WASL. Consider the strategies that worked for you during these lessons. What should the student be sure to add? What should he or she avoid? From your point of view, what can you tell the student about good persuasive writing?

81 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Introductions

82 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Introductions What makes an effective introduction? It grabs the reader’s attention. It clearly implies an organizational structure of the paper. It effectively includes one or more of the following strategies:  anecdote or scenario  interesting fact or statistic  question Its choice of support is specific and relevant, and provides a clear, connected lead-in to the paper’s main idea or thesis. Position is clearly stated or implied.

83 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Ineffective Persuasive Introduction Dear Mr. Fernando, I’m going to tell you three reasons why it is not good to turn in late homework. Does this introduction do the following?  Grab the reader’s attention  Imply an organizational structure of the paper  Include one or more of the following strategies:  anecdote or scenario  question  interesting fact or statistic  Give support that is specific and relevant, and provide a clear, connected lead-in to paper’s main idea  State or imply a clear position

84 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Introductions Some persuasive strategies used in introductions Anecdote/ Scenario  The writer provides a personal experience or made- up situation to introduce the position. Questioning  The writer asks thought-provoking questions to capture the reader’s interest. Interesting fact or statistic  The writer gives an interesting piece of information to grab the reader’s attention.

85 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Anecdote/Scenario “Extra! Extra! Read all about it! New rule has kids scared.” Those are the headlines from The Seattle Times. The new rule is an epidemic, spreading around the country and making children cry. “No late work has a devastating effect and needs to be stopped now before it reaches other countries,” says Bill Warren, a noted authority.

86 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Questioning Dear Principal, “Three strikes and you’re out!” Yes, that is baseball, but really everybody deserves a second chance at things, right? In baseball you get three chances at batting, why can’t you get just two at school? I mean think of it this way. What if you just had to go visit your grandpa in the hospital because you just found out he has cancer? Shouldn’t you get a second chance if you didn’t get to your homework because it was too late by the time you got home? I think that teachers should accept late work because at least you tried and turned it in.

87 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Interesting Fact or Statistic Dear Mr. Johnson, Did you know that a recent district survey showed that four out of five school kids do not have passing grades because they do not turn their work in on time? This could be changed by no longer allowing late work. Late work should no longer be accepted at Grant Middle School.

88 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Introductions Get into a group of 3 or 4. You will receive a paper with several introductions on it as well as a copy of “Effective Introductions.” Discuss characteristics of the introductions that you see. Label the characteristics in the margins of your paper. Be sure all your names are on the paper before turning it in.

89 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introduction – practice Get with a partner. You will receive a copy of a paper called Ten Minute Break. It is missing its introduction and conclusion. With your partner, discuss possible ideas for what you might put in the introduction. Refer to “Effective Introductions.”

90 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions – your turn Now, on your own, write an introduction for the Ten Minute Break. You may use any of the ideas you discussed with your partner or new ones of your own. Remember that you are writing to your principal. Think of what would be effective in writing to him or her. When you are finished compare your introduction with that of your partner.

91 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Conclusions

92 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Conclusions What makes an effective conclusion?  Clearly connects introduction and body of the paper with insightful comments/analysis.  Ends using one or more of the following strategies effectively: Call to action Anecdote or scenario Prediction  Wraps up the writing and gives the reader something to think about.

93 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Ineffective Persuasive Conclusion All in all I think we should not have this rule because there is not enough time for me to finish my homework, something could happen to my homework, and I have better things to do than homework. Don’t make this a rule in our school! (This is a restatement of the introduction as well as a restatement of the body of the piece.)

94 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Strategies for Conclusions Call to Action  Ask the reader to do something or to make something happen Provide a solution  Provide an answer to the problem Make a Prediction  Explain what might be the consequences of action or inaction

95 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Call to Action – student sample Now do you see why it’s not right to say that teachers should not accept late work? Not everyone is perfect and and sometimes we students might make mistakes. But isn’t that how we get wiser? Only you, Mr. Perez, have the power to choose between becoming a dictator or the president of a proud school. Say no to no late work!

96 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Solution – student sample So accepting late work would be a good idea. If you are concerned about students that repeatedly don’t turn work in on time, take some points off for late work or put a limit on how late work can be turned in. Accept late work for good reasons. Don’t punish the innocent.

97 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Prediction – student sample “No late work” policies should be against the law. They make students stressed out, depressed, angry, and tired. If a rule as such is adopted, no one will take part in extra activities offered to them, the Honors Programs will be lacking, students will be falling asleep in class, and grades will begin dropping. Is it really worth it?

98 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Conclusions Get into a group of 3 or 4. You will receive a paper with several conclusions on it as well as a copy of “Effective Conclusions.” Discuss characteristics of the conclusions that you see. Label the characteristics in the margins of your paper. Be sure all your names are on the paper before turning it in.

99 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusion – practice Get with a partner. Use your copy of the paper titled Ten Minute Break. With your partner, discuss possible ideas for what you might put in the conclusion. Refer to Effective Conclusions.

100 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions – your turn Now, on your own, write a conclusion for the Ten Minute Break. You may use any of the ideas you discussed with your partner or new ones of your own. Remember that you are writing to your principal. Think of what would be effective in writing to him or her. Also remember what you wrote in the introduction and connect the conclusion without restating the introduction. When you are finished compare your conclusion with that of your partner.

101 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Strategies Expert Testimony Anecdote (Self as Expert) Problem Solving Statistics Rhetorical Questions

102 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expert Testimony Expert testimony - evidence in support of a fact or statement given by a person thought to have special skill or knowledge. According to a noted authority… Mia Hamm says…

103 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expert Testimony – example “The effort put in reflects the outcome,” says Professor Plum from the University of Washington. I must say that I have to agree with this powerful message.

104 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Expert Testimony – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Consider how an expert could support your position. Who would that expert be and what might he/she say? Decide where to add that expert testimony and do so. Share this with your partner.

105 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Anecdote – self as expert Anecdote is a personal experience inserted into your writing in which the audience sees your own expertise or knowledge, and as a result will support your position. I remember the time when I had to carry my… As a seventh grader myself, I happen to know exactly why…

106 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Anecdote – example Even an A student like myself can forget an assignment once in a while! I think every student should be entitled to the right of having at least one “late pass” per quarter.

107 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Anecdotes – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Identify some stories you could use to develop your position. Make yourself the expert in the story. Write a short anecdote that might work. Share this with your partner.

108 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Compromise or Problem Solving – examples Compromise or problem solving is when you create a solution that is in between the two points of view. I have the solution to this problem, too. I think we can both agree that this is a pretty good deal.

109 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Compromise or Problem Solving – example Even if you don’t choose my position on this argument, at least consider this: Make late work be at the teacher’s discretion. Let the teachers decide a fair punishment or penalty, or if late work will be accepted after all. Thank you for taking my ideas into consideration.

110 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Compromise or Problem Solving – example I also understand that some students would choose not to do their homework and do it later. But I have solutions to this problem, too. A student could have to bring in a note signed by a parent or guardian that says why a student brought his or her work in late. An alternative solution is that homework can only be accepted a select number of days after it was due.

111 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Compromise or Problem Solving You didn’t get grades as high as expected. You are now grounded until the next report cards come out (8 weeks from now). You feel this may be excessive punishment. In small groups, brainstorm possible compromises or solutions. Put them on a chart. Post your chart on the wall and do a gallery walk to see what everyone has written. Put a sticky note by any solutions you really like.

112 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Compromise or Problem Solving – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Identify a compromise or solution you could use in your paper. On your own paper, write what might work. Share this with your partner.

113 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Statistics Inclusion of statistics – using facts and statistics to support your position. Sixty-five percent of this year’s 7 th grade students met the standard on the writing WASL. Four out of five doctors recommend…

114 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Statistics – example Sixty-three percent of teachers surveyed on late homework say they would truthfully rather give kids zeros than go through the hassle of grading late homework. Teachers don’t want to waste their time with procrastinators. The No Late Homework Rule will further support this belief.

115 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Statistics – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on homework. Identify some statistics you could use to support your position or argument. Insert one or more statistics that would strengthen your argument. Share this with your partner.

116 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Rhetorical Questions Rhetorical questions are questions that have obvious answers. They are often used to involve the audience, create interest, and to introduce your position or argument. Have you ever felt the glare of a teacher’s eyes crisping the back of your neck? Hey, I did my homework on time. They didn’t, and they still get credit for it?

117 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Rhetorical Questions – example “I’m sorry. I left my work at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it.” Your teacher smiles at you. “It’s okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow.” Isn’t that a better situation than “Oh, too bad! You don’t get any credit for it”?

118 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Rhetorical Questions – your turn Look at the baseline paper you wrote on late homework. Write a rhetorical question that might work to strengthen your argument or position. Share this with your partner.

119 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Assessment Evaluating the quality of persuasion

120 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion Scoring Guide Score of 4Score of 3Score of 2Score of 1  Has a clear position and stays focused on that position.  Shows a keen awareness of the audience.  Selects persuasive words, phrases, and strategies that urge or compel the reader to support a position.  Organizes writing to make the best case to support position.  Uses convincing elaboration: arguments, well-chosen, specific, and relevant details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence for support.  Begins with a compelling opening, and ends with an effective persuasive conclusion, such as a call for action.  Addresses the opposing argument(s) consistently and, if important, refutes.  Uses purposeful transitions consistently to connect position, arguments, and evidence.  Has an identifiable position and stays adequately focused on that position.  Shows an adequate awareness of the audience.  Adequately uses persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support a position.  Organizes in a manner to persuade the reader.  Adequately uses elaboration which may include arguments, specific, and relevant details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence for support.  Begins with an adequate opening, and ends with an adequate persuasive conclusion.  Adequately addresses the opposing argument(s) and, if important, refutes.  Adequately uses transitions to connect position, arguments, and evidence.  Has an unclear or inconsistent position or may lose focus on that position.  Shows a limited awareness of the audience.  Has limited use of persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support a position.  Uses a basic organizational pattern to persuade the reader.  Uses limited elaboration to support arguments.  Uses undeveloped or ineffective openings and conclusions, which are often list-like.  Has some consideration of the opposing argument(s).  Uses basic transitions to connect position, arguments, or evidence.  Has vague or no position, or lacks focus.  Shows little or no awareness of the audience.  Has few or no persuasive words, phrases, or strategies to support a position.  Lacks any organizational pattern to persuade the reader.  Has little or no elaboration, often only a list of arguments.  Has no recognizable opening or conclusion.  Has no consideration of opposing arguments.  Uses few or no transitions to connect position, arguments, or evidence.

121 Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Assessment – your turn Score the paper for effective persuasion using the Persuasion Scoring Guide. Analyze what organizational structures and persuasive strategies have been used. Analyze the introduction and conclusion strategies that have been used.


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