Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:
1Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Persuasive WritingThe Persuasive Writing Course contains instructional materials to support most of the GLEs.The students are learning to use a writing process (EALR 1) for the purpose of persuading specific audiences (EALR 2).Students are also working to evaluate their own and others’ writing (EALR 4).However, the focus of the course is on EALR 3 – writing clearly and effectively. This focus was chosen after analyzing papers of students who scored at Level 2. Specifically, these Grade Level Expectations for EALR 3 are 1) narrowing a topic, 2) organizing ideas, 3) elaborating ideas, 4) writing introductions and conclusions, and 5) editing for conventions.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
2Persuasive Prompt – Baseline Some fourth graders attend school where their teachers do not accept late homework. Your principal is thinking of making this a rule at your school. Take a position on this rule. Write a three paragraph letter to your principal to persuade him or her to support your position.Baseline persuasive writing promptGive this prompt prior to any instruction. Students will need at least one class period to complete this prompt.Students will keep a portfolio. This can be a folder or a sheet of construction paper folded in half. You will need to have a place to keep the portfolios in your classroom. The baseline paper needs to go into the portfolio for additional work later. A writing notebook could also be used.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
3Expository vs. Persuasive Sorting ActivityCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
4Expository vs. Persuasive Sorting Group Activity Student Directions:Sort your envelope of cards into two columns titled “Expository Writing” and “Persuasive Writing.”Try to come to agreement in your group.Be prepared to defend your choice with evidence from the card.If you finish before the rest of the class, match up the persuasive characteristic with its expository partner.Use this slide and the following 3 slides to compare and contrast expository and persuasive writing. These slides can also be used as an answer key to the sorting activity.If you are unclear about persuasive strategies, the document folder contains a handout titled Persuasive Strategies.doc that lists and defines the various strategies.For sorting activity, you will need to make the materials ahead of time.In the document folder, find the Sorting Template.doc and print it.Make enough copies of the template so each group has 1 set of the cards. Make your group sizes to fit your preferences and your class.Cut the copied templates into cards; mix the cards and place 1 set of the cards into an envelope.Students, in their groups, will find the 2 title cards “Persuasive Writing” and “Expository Writing.” Then they will sort the rest of the cards under one of those two headings.Encourage students to look for evidence on the card that would be a clue to its category.Use the uncut template as a key for categories and matching.Show slides 17 – 20 to compare and correct their sort.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
5Expository vs. Persuasive Expository writinghas a narrow topic.stays focused on the main ideas.is elaborated using reasons, well-chosen and specific details, examples, and/or anecdotes to support ideas.Persuasive writinghas a clear position and is focused on that position.has more than one argument to support a position.is elaborated by using reasons, well-chosen and specific details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence to support arguments.Use this slide and the following 3 slides to compare and contrast expository and persuasive writing. These slides can also be used as an answer key to the sorting activity.If you are unclear about persuasive strategies, the document folder contains a handout titled Persuasive Strategies.doc that lists and defines the various strategies.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
6Expository vs. Persuasive Expository writingincludes information that is interesting, thoughtful, and necessary for the audience.uses transitions to connect ideas.Persuasive writingis organized to make the best case for my position.uses transitions to connect position, arguments, and evidence.Persuasive organization will be addressed later as a separate topic. There are many ways to organize persuasive writing. Note that students sometimes try to use an expository structure to write persuasively, and this is frequently not effective. Occasionally, a student can use preponderance of evidence to support a contention (example--Michael Jordan is the best basketball player ever because…). But there are other organizational structures and strategies for persuasion.Transitions will also be addressed at a later point.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
7Expository vs. Persuasive Expository writingis organized with an introduction, supporting paragraphs with main points and elaboration, and an effective conclusion.Persuasive writingis organized to make the best case with an opening, including the position statement, and an effective persuasive conclusion, such as a call to action.anticipates and refutes the opposing position.Specific strategies for writing persuasive introductions and conclusions are covered later in this module.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
8Expository vs. Persuasive Expository writingshows commitment to topic with voice and language appropriate for the audience.uses specific words and phrases.Persuasive writingshows commitment to position with voice and language appropriate for the audience.uses specific words, phrases, and persuasive devices that urge or compel.As you go through the specifics about persuasive writing, you may want to come back and review the differences.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
9Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Persuasive ExampleThe purpose of persuasive writing is to persuade.Some late work counts as 70% credit, giving kids a C- which is passing. Some kids are happy because they think a C- is a good grade. How can we allow students to turn in all of their work late but still have a passing grade? The kids that have C-’s don’t care about their work because even if they turn it in late, they can still get a passing grade. These kids have sort of twisted the grading system to benefit themselves. This can no longer be allowed.This is an excerpt from a 7th grade persuasive paper from the 2006 anchor set—scoring 4 on Content, Organization, and Style (COS).Discuss why this piece of writing is persuasive.Key: The writer takes a clear position—late work can no longer be allowed.The writer uses evidence to elaborate and support his/her position and persuade. “…counts as 70% credit, late work earns a passing grade, some kids don’t care if they get a C-, this twists the grading system…”Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
10Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Persuasive WritingIn persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something.Discussion:Why do we use persuasive writing? Give an example.Discuss the various reasons why persuasive writing is important. Use the document titled Persuasion is Powerful.doc to have students fill in the seven purposes for persuasion and then create examples based on the pictures on each of the following slides. A sample key is available in the document folder. It is titled Powerful answer Key.doc.Support a causeUrge people to actionMake a changeProve something wrongStir up sympathyCreate interestGet people to agree with youStudents need to keep this paper in their portfolio. They will use it again at slide #51. As an additional activity, students will revise their example sentences to make them stronger. The revised sentences will then be used as a position statement and eventually for a longer persuasive paper.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
11Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: SupportaCauseCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
12Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: UrgePeopleToActionCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
13Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: MakeAChangeCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
14Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: ProveSomethingWrongCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
15Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: StirUpSympathyCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
16Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: CreateInterestCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
17Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: GetPeopleToAgreeWithYouCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
18Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to… PurposeSupport a causeUrge people to actionMake a changeProve something wrongExamplePlease support my soccer team by buying discount coupons.Vote for Pedro.Let’s get the principal to let us wear hats.Cars do not cause global warming.Here are the same purpose statements paired with more examples.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
19Persuasion is Powerful! Use it to… PurposeStir up sympathyCreate interestGet people to agree with youExampleIf you don’t adopt a dog, it could be put to death.Better grades get you a better job and more money.I am sure you’ll agree Snickers are the best candy bars.Here are the same purpose statements paired with more examples.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
20Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Audience AwarenessKnow your audience before you start writing.The audience is who will read your writing.The audience may include your teacher, your parents, your friends, or the President of the United States.Think about the needs of your reader (audience) so you can give reasons that will persuade him/her.Point out to students that sometimes you are writing for a general audience (could be read by anyone). This means the writer needs to consider a wide range of readers. Discuss the implications for knowing your audience.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
21Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Audience AwarenessKnowing your audience helps you to decideHow to connect with the ideas, knowledge, or beliefs of the person or groupWhat information to includeHow informal or formal the language should beTake some time to define and give examples of formal and informal language. Discuss when each would be the appropriate choice.Examples:Formal marvelousInformal (slang or jargon sweetFormal Mr. Smith, How are you today?Informal (slang or jargon) Hey Dude, ‘wasup?Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
22Audience Awareness—example Dear Mrs. Gillingham,Imagine you were a student, sitting in math when your teacher says, “Okay, get out your homework.”You rustle around in your desk for a while until you realize -- oh no! You left your homework at home, perfectly done.Discuss with your students how this example demonstrates audience awareness (I.e., directly addresses the audience, imagines what it is like to be the teacher, sees the need to relate to another viewpoint, etc.).Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
23Persuasion Essentials Audience Awareness ActivityCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
24Audience Awareness—your turn Form groups of 3 or 4.Write a short letter persuading someone to give your group a video game.You will find out your audience by drawing a card. Your teacher holds the cards. Don’t tell anyone who your audience is. Keep it secret.Do not include the name of the audience in your letter. Where you would put the name, draw a blank line.If there is something besides video games that is really hot with your students, substitute it for “video game.”Teacher will have to make cards ahead of time. Use 3 X 5 cards and make one card for each writing group. Allow each group to draw a card to find out its audience—see below for suggested audiences.Audiences may include:Bill Gates foundation (as a donation)Parents or guardians (as a gift)Grandparents (as a gift)A friend (as a loan)Local businessMake sure you have a variety of audience types.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
25Audience Awareness—follow up Each group will read its letter without naming the audience.As you listen, write down who you think the audience might be.Discuss why it was difficult or easy to figure out the audience.Give the students the form titled Who’s the Audience Form.doc in the document folder.As each group reads their letters, the listening groups fill in the form citing audience and evidence.After listening to all the letters, the group will reveal the actual audience. Groups need to discuss why the audience was easy to identify or not and record their ideas on the worksheet.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
26Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Clear PositionThe writer must have a clear position and stay focused on that position. Generally, the position is stated in the opening paragraph or introduction.For a student copy of the following three slides, go to the document folder Find the Position Statement.doc. If it is appropriate, students can work in pairs or in groups to try to identify the position statement BEFORE going to the next three slides.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
27Clear Position — example Anxiety creases the brows of many students trying to finish their homework on time. If they don’t finish on time they won’t get any credit. Having a no late homework rule is a very bad idea. Students’ grades will drop, their work will be of lesser quality, and school won’t feel as welcoming. Students won’t be able to do work worth a lot of merit.Read the student sample above. The position statement is “Having a no late homework rule is a very bad idea.”Discuss the position the student has stated and whether or not that statement is clear to the reader. Note where that statement appears in the paragraph.Relate to students that the position statement can be found anywhere within the introduction of the piece (which may be more than one paragraph). It might be fun for students to rewrite this student paper attempting to place the position statement in a different place within the paragraph. Then discuss which position is the most effective and why.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
28Find the Position Statement I think late homework should be accepted. Imagine you were a student sitting in your math class when your teacher says, “Okay, get out your homework!” You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize—oh no! You left your homework at home perfectly done. The teacher comes by your desk and you say, “I am sorry. I left my homework at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it.” Your teacher smiles at you. “It’s okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow.” Isn’t that a better situation than “Oh too bad! You don’t get any credit for it”?Read the student sample above. (A copy of this sample will be found in the Document Folder title Find the position statement.doc. It is generally helpful for each student to have a copy of his or her own.) The position statement is—”I think late homework should be accepted.”Ask students to locate the sentence that states the writer’s position concerning late homework. They should either highlight that sentence or underline it on their own papers.Note where that statement appears in the paragraph. Discuss the student’s position and indicate whether or not that statement is clear to the reader.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
29Find the Position Statement “I’m sorry!”“Sorry isn’t good enough! This assignment was dueyesterday, not today.” Here I am on my knees begging formercy at my teacher’s feet. Tears forming in my eyes, I feellike an out-of-order water fountain ready to explode! I sighand back away like a puppy dog with its tail between itslegs. I slump back down in my plastic, red chair and stareat the metal desk. “I worked so hard,” I muttered silently tomyself. The teacher turned her back on me and continuedon with today’s lesson. I am against the no late homework rulebecause some students did the work but forgot it at home,and others forgot about the assignment but made it upthe next day.Discuss this example with students. In this example the position statement is in the last sentence of the paragraph, “I am against the no late homework rule….”Ask students to locate the sentence that states the writer’s position concerning late homework. They should either highlight that sentence or underline it on their own papers.Note where that statement appears in the paragraph. Discuss the student’s position and indicate whether or not that statement is clear to the reader.It is possible for students to create a compromise position. If they choose that, then that compromise position becomes their position, and they need to stick to it.Example: With the no late homework issue, a compromise position may be to accept the late homework but with a reduced grade OR some particular types of assignments could be accepted late, OR an assignment could be accepted with a note from the parent explaining the reason for the late work.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
30Persuasion Essentials Position Statement ActivityCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
31Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Persuasive LanguagePersuasive language is choosing just the right words or phrases to use at just the right time with just the right audience.Strong words trigger strong feelings.SnatchesSnarlsDumbstruckRepeated words or phrases for emphasisI have a dream…(Martin Luther King, Jr.)Effective choice of connotationsMean or strictDied or passed awayUsed or pre-ownedDiscuss with students. The “strong words” are from the example that follows. Tell students to look for these words in the example. Generate lists of these ways to persuade with language.Discuss the difference between the connotations of the words listed. Have students think of other examples.Other connotations examples:old or antique or vintage or seniorcabin or vacation homeshack or hut or cabincheap or inexpensivererun or encore presentationSee if students can generate more.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
32Persuasion Essentials Persuasive Language ActivityCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
33Words that Could Be More Effective You are a middle school student. Essay in one hand, you go to class. “I’m done!” You smile. The teacher takes the essay out of your hands and throws it away. She says, “It’s a day late!” You look at your hard work. The teacher didn’t look at it! The No Late Homework Rule is bad.Change the weak highlighted words to words that are more effective. Start with the word “go” and brainstorm words or phrases that are more specific and paint a better picture of the action. Take suggestions from students about words that could be changed to make this piece stronger. Brainstorm possible word substitutions. Write the word substitutions on chart paper. You will need eight pieces of chart paper—one for each of the words or phrases.Example: instead of “go” use meander, stomp, slide on in, saunter.Have students use the charts to rewrite the paragraph on their own. Use the handout from the document folder titled Adding Meaningful Words.doc to revise the paragraph.Move on to the following slide. There is an example of how one seventh grader wrote this paragraph.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
34Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Persuasive LanguageImagine yourself as a fourth grade student. Two page essay in one hand, you rush into the classroom. “I’m done! I’m done!” you pant, beaming proudly.The teacher snatches the essay out of your grasp and tears it to pieces before your eyes. She snarls, “It’s a day late!”On your knees, you stare dumbstruck at your hard work, ripped to shreds. The teacher didn’t even glance at it! The No Late Homework Rule is a cruel, horrible rule.This is an excerpt from the 2006 WASL.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
35Organizational Structure Argument / Counter ArgumentConcession / RebuttalCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
36Organizational Structure Strategies that you choose to use for persuasion dictate how the paper is organized.Persuasive organization frequently looks very different from expository organization.As we look at different strategies, we will see what that means regarding the organization of the paper.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
37My Turn! Your Turn! (A Persuasive Exercise) This exercise is done with a partner.Choose one rule in your school that needs to be changed. Each partner may choose a different rule.Each of you takes the role of a student and writes the rule and what needs to be changed about the rule. Each student has his/her own paper.Form partnerships. Duplicate and distribute My Turn form.doc in Document Folder.There is also a My Turn dialogue.doc in the Document Folder that can be read aloud. In this example, there is a dialogue between a hypothetical student and principal. It is effective to have two students read and practice the dialogue and then read for the class as an oral model for what students will be writing.Students write from their own position, writing the rules they’d like to have changed.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
38Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. My Turn! Your Turn!Trade your paper with your partner.Each student takes the role of the principal. Respond to your partner’s paper and write back with the principal’s arguments.When you get your own paper back, respond again, this time as a student.Repeat.Repeat once more.Your paper, when complete, will show two points of view (an argument and counter argument).Help students follow the directions on the slides—they all will take the role of a principal.Emphasize that each partner must think about the other person's rule when they exchange the first time because they will take an opposing viewpoint.Have students then engage in an argument in writing. They are to argue the issue back and forth in a paper exchange, each challenging the other's point of view.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
39Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Group DiscussionSay goodbye to your partner and form a new group of three.Each student reads his/her own paper aloud.Select one paper from your group and discuss and write the answers to the following questions based on that paper.Why did you choose the paper?Which arguments were most effective?What made them effective?Were you persuaded? Why or why not?You have a My Turn questions.doc in the document folder. One person should scribe for the group of three. At least one group should share with the entire group.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
40Concession and Rebuttal Concession and rebuttal (or counter argument). In a concession, you acknowledge that certain opposing arguments have some truth. The rebuttal explains how this does not weaken your argument. This makes you sound open–minded. This sounds like. . .Remind students that what they experienced in My Turn! Your Turn! was an argument and counter argument. When there is concession and rebuttal, the writer concedes the truth of an argument before answering it, which can be more effective than just answering back and forth.I realize most teachers don’t want cell phones in class because they cause problems, butI know what other kids would say. . . I have a possible solution to this problem.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
41Concession and Rebuttal - example Concession and rebuttal from the “late homework” prompt…I’d want all the procrastinators to get no credit, because they didn’t turn the work in on time and I did… Sure it sounds mean, but some people need to take up the reins and learn some responsibility.Discuss this sample (excerpted from the 2006 WASL) with your students. The concession / rebuttal is in blue.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
42Concession and Rebuttal Concession and rebuttal happens frequently. How many of you have been in a discussion with someone and you remember saying, “Yeah, that’s true, but…” This is concession and rebuttal.Let’s list several situations when you have actually said something similar.Shared writing:Take ideas from the class and chart concessions and rebuttals. As you make your list, discuss the effectiveness of the rebuttals.Examples:Concession: I know you don’t want me to go to Jerome’s house since last time we started messing around and Jerome broke his arm, BUT…Rebuttal: …this time we will be really careful. His arm is out of the cast, and the doctor says it’s stronger than before. We also won’t get on the trampoline this time.Do you think this is an effective rebuttal? Why or why not?Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
43Concession and Rebuttal—your turn Look at the paper you wrote on homework.Talk about a possible place to add a concession and rebuttal.On your own paper, write a concession and rebuttal that will strengthen your argument.Share this with your partner and discuss its effectiveness.In the document folder is 7th concession-rebuttal samples.doc. This document has two samples of 7th grade baseline papers and the concession/rebuttal they added after the lesson. You may want to share these papers with your students.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
44Organizational Structure Causal ChainCopyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
45Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Causal ChainRemember this nursery rhyme?This is the house that Jack built.This is the maltThat lay in the house that Jack built.This is the ratThat ate the maltThis is the catThat killed the ratThat lay in the house that Jack built…Another organizational strategy is a causal chain (“House That Jack Built”).If students do not know this nursery rhyme, see if they remember “There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly” or “If You Give a Mouse a Cookie.” Point out how one thing leads to another in these rhymes. The following slides should help them understand this strategy a little better.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
46Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI. All rights reserved. Causal ChainCausal chain (House that Jack Built) is a chain of cause/effect events (e.g., “a” causes “b” causes “c,” etc.)If you give us more time for a break, we will get more homework done, so our grades will be better, and our parents will be proud.If your mom forgets to buy gas, then you will run out of gas on the way to school, and then you will be late and get detention.This is an example.Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.
47Try it Together ? If you give a mouse a cookie, He’s going to ask for aglass of milk.He’ll probably ask you fora straw.When you give him the milk,Shared writingThese are the first few lines of the picture book, If You Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff. It shows how one thing leads to another. This is the idea behind this organizational strategy.Challenge your students to examine the organizational strategy the author is using to organize. Stop after these five actions and ask the group to continue the sequence and finish the book. Chart their version. You may want to set a limit on the length.When he’s finished, he’ll askfor a napkin.?Copyright 2007 Washington OSPI All rights reserved.