Presentation on theme: "I. DIGESTION – THE PROCESS THAT BREAKS FOOD INTO SMALL MOLECULES SO THEY CAN BE ABSORBED OR TAKEN INTO BODY CELLS. A. Mechanical digestion 1. Food chewed."— Presentation transcript:
I. DIGESTION – THE PROCESS THAT BREAKS FOOD INTO SMALL MOLECULES SO THEY CAN BE ABSORBED OR TAKEN INTO BODY CELLS. A. Mechanical digestion 1. Food chewed and mixed in mouth. 2. Food churned in stomach. 3. Food acted on by bile.
B. CHEMICAL DIGESTIONS 1. Breaks down large molecules to smaller. 2. In mouth, stomach, small intestines 3.Enzymes a. Proteins vital for chemical digestion b. Enters a reaction and helps to join or break up into substances c. Are not changed themselves d. Can speed up reactions
II. DIGESTION IN MOUTH A. Mechanical digestion by tongue and teeth B. Chemical digestion 1. Saliva a. Produced by the 3 sets of salivary glands b. Mostly water, but also contains mucus and enzymes (amylase) c. Amylase starts breakdown of starch to sugar. DIAGRAM OF THE MOUTH
C. ESOPHAGUS 1. Muscular tube cm. long 3. No digestion 4. Peristalsis- waves of contractions that move food a. Takes about 4 to 8 seconds b. Peristalsis found throughout digestive systems ESOPHAGUS DIAGRAM
III. DIGESTION IN THE STOMACH A. A muscular bag with folds on the inside B. Mechanical digestion done by walls of stomach and peristalsis. DIAGRAM OF THE STOMACH Real view
C. CHEMICAL DIGESTION 1. Hydrochloric acid 2. Enzymes work on protein 3. Mucus a. Lubricates food, making it slick b. Protects stomach lining from strong digestive juices D. Food in stomach about 4 hours E. Food changed to chyme - thin, watery liquid INSIDE THE STOMACH
IV. DIGESTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINE A. Small in diameter, but about 6-7 M long B. - first part of the duodenum small intestine 1. Major part of all digestion 2. Receive digestive juices from outside the digestive tract a. Bile 1. From the liver 2. Greenish color SMALL INTESTINES DIAGRAM
SMALL INTESTINES CONTINUE 3. Store in small sac : the gall bladder 4. Breaks fat molecules into smaller pieces (like detergent acts on grease) b. Pancreas 1. Produces insulin - helps body use sugar and other carbohydrates 2. Produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, proteins still further DIAGRAM OF GALLBLADDER
C. WALLS OF SMALL INTESTINE 1. Many ridges and folds 2. Folds covered with villi a. Tiny, finger like projections b. Make surface area larger so there are more places for to be absorbed.
D. CHYME IS NOW A SOUP OF MOLECULES READY TO BE ABSORBED THROUGH CELLS ON SURFACE OF VILLI. 1. Molecules of nutrients pass by diffusion and osmosis or by active transport into blood vessels of each villus. 2. Remaining materials are moved into large intestines by peristalsis. CAPILLARIES AROUND THE VILLUS
V. ABSORPTION IN LARGE INTESTINE A. Main job: absorb water from the thin mixture (chyme) B. Homeostasis is maintained. C. Peristalsis slows down some. 1. Chyme may stay in large intestine for 3 days 2. Water and sodium are absorbed. LARGE INTESTINES
D. REMAINING MATERIALS 1. Undigested cellulose 2. Bacteria a. Feed on undigested matter b. Produce vitamins. c. This is an example of a symbiotic relationship.
E. RELEASE OF SOLIDIFIED WASTES 1. Controlled by muscles in the rectum and anus. 2. Release in the form of feces.
REMEMBER Food is processed in your digestive system for the purpose of supplying your body with raw materials for metabolism. These raw materials are in the form of nutrients. COLON: