Presentation on theme: "Digestion Chapter 13 The chemical and mechanical process of breaking down food to release nutrients in a form your body can absorb for use. The Digestive."— Presentation transcript:
1Digestion Chapter 13The chemical and mechanical process of breaking down food to release nutrients in a form your body can absorb for use.The Digestive System (3:38)
2AbsorptionThe process by which nutrients get from the digestive tract into the transportation system that carries them to cells throughout the bodyFood is broken down in the digestive tract or ALIMENTARY CANAL.
3Digestion in the MouthMastication, chewing, creates more food surface area for the chemical reactions that are already starting to take place. As you chew liquids are release by the mucous membranes and glands under the tongue to soften the food.Epiglottis is located at the back of the tongue, its job is to shield the windpipe when you swallow and prevents food and water from entering.Saliva is a mixture of water, mucus, salts and digestive enzyme amylase. The saliva starts the chemical processes that aids in digestion.
4Food in the EsophagusEsophagus is the tube-like object connecting the mouth to the stomach.Peristalsis breaks food down into finer particles by using waves of muscular contractionsCardiac sphincter ring like muscular valve that is at the end of the esophagus.
5Digestion in the Stomach Hydrochloric acid – breakdown proteinsEnzymes – breakdown protein and fatsGastrin – this a protein made by the body to control acid secretionMucus – a lining that protects the stomach by releasing a bicarbonate-rich mucusChyme – a thick fluid that was once your mealPyloric sphincter – controls the foods rate of movement from the stomach to the small intestine
6Digestion in the Small Intestine Small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canalThree other organs assist the small intestine (liver, gall bladder and pancreas)Liver produces bile, a greenish liquid that helps fat mix with the water in the intestine. By creating this water-fat emulsion, bile helps the body digest and absorb fat. Bile is stored in the gall bladder until needed.Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, an enzyme-rich fluid that continues to reduce food to smaller molecules.
7Small Intestine Absorption Nutrients are now tiny molecules that can pass through the thin walls of the small intestineThe lining of the small intestine has the greatest possible surface area for nutrient absorptionVilli and Microvilli are finger like projections specifically designed to aid the absorption of one particular nutrient. A microvilli designated as absorbers for a certain sugar will not absorb a protein or even another sugar.Foods are absorbed in a set order, the same order they are broken down. (simple sugars, proteins, fats)
8Absorption in the Large Intestines Large Intestine includes two parts the colon and the rectum, these segments make up the final of the digestive tract. They perform the following three functions:Bacterial action – breaks down any carbohydrates that were not digested earlier by enzymes. Also breaks down indigestible fiber into simpler compounds. They synthesize vitamin K and certain B vitamins, creating those nutrients from other, existing chemicals.Water Recovery – Water is reabsorbed by the body, along with such mineral salts as sodium and potassiumCollection of waste – Some parts of foods the cannot be used or digested are stored until elimination from the body