Presentation on theme: "Digestion Chapter 13 The chemical and mechanical process of breaking down food to release nutrients in a form your body can absorb for use. The Digestive."— Presentation transcript:
Digestion Chapter 13 The chemical and mechanical process of breaking down food to release nutrients in a form your body can absorb for use. The Digestive System (3:38) tq1KQ
Absorption The process by which nutrients get from the digestive tract into the transportation system that carries them to cells throughout the body Food is broken down in the digestive tract or ALIMENTARY CANAL.
Digestion in the Mouth Mastication, chewing, creates more food surface area for the chemical reactions that are already starting to take place. As you chew liquids are release by the mucous membranes and glands under the tongue to soften the food. Epiglottis is located at the back of the tongue, its job is to shield the windpipe when you swallow and prevents food and water from entering. Saliva is a mixture of water, mucus, salts and digestive enzyme amylase. The saliva starts the chemical processes that aids in digestion.
Food in the Esophagus Esophagus is the tube-like object connecting the mouth to the stomach. Peristalsis breaks food down into finer particles by using waves of muscular contractions Cardiac sphincter ring like muscular valve that is at the end of the esophagus.
Digestion in the Stomach Hydrochloric acid – breakdown proteins Enzymes – breakdown protein and fats Gastrin – this a protein made by the body to control acid secretion Mucus – a lining that protects the stomach by releasing a bicarbonate-rich mucus Chyme – a thick fluid that was once your meal Pyloric sphincter – controls the foods rate of movement from the stomach to the small intestine
Digestion in the Small Intestine Small intestine is the longest section of the alimentary canal Three other organs assist the small intestine (liver, gall bladder and pancreas) Liver produces bile, a greenish liquid that helps fat mix with the water in the intestine. By creating this water-fat emulsion, bile helps the body digest and absorb fat. Bile is stored in the gall bladder until needed. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, an enzyme-rich fluid that continues to reduce food to smaller molecules.
Small Intestine Absorption Nutrients are now tiny molecules that can pass through the thin walls of the small intestine The lining of the small intestine has the greatest possible surface area for nutrient absorption Villi and Microvilli are finger like projections specifically designed to aid the absorption of one particular nutrient. A microvilli designated as absorbers for a certain sugar will not absorb a protein or even another sugar. Foods are absorbed in a set order, the same order they are broken down. (simple sugars, proteins, fats)
Absorption in the Large Intestines Large Intestine includes two parts the colon and the rectum, these segments make up the final of the digestive tract. They perform the following three functions: Bacterial action – breaks down any carbohydrates that were not digested earlier by enzymes. Also breaks down indigestible fiber into simpler compounds. They synthesize vitamin K and certain B vitamins, creating those nutrients from other, existing chemicals. Water Recovery – Water is reabsorbed by the body, along with such mineral salts as sodium and potassium Collection of waste – Some parts of foods the cannot be used or digested are stored until elimination from the body