Presentation on theme: "“Policy and Regulatory Framework for Waste Effluent Management in Kenya: Potential Effectiveness of Compliance Alice A. Kaudia Environment Secretary Ministry."— Presentation transcript:
“Policy and Regulatory Framework for Waste Effluent Management in Kenya: Potential Effectiveness of Compliance Alice A. Kaudia Environment Secretary Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources Environment
Presentation Outline Effluent Management Landscape Policy and Regulatory Approaches in Sub- Sahara Africa Case Experience: Kenya Regulations and practices Challenges Opportunities Conclusion
What is effluent Gaseous or liquid waste pre-treated to defined standards of chemical and particulate matter content that can be discharged to the environment without causing adverse change in the quality of and ecosystem or conveyance infrastructure
Effluent released from the agrochemical industry in Kisumu district into river nyando.
Drivers and triggers of poor effluent management Urbanization Weak and dysfunctional governance systems – Polices – Regulations – Institutional arrangements – Out-dated technology and infrastructure
Urbanization Urbanization pressures are most marked in the mainland states, where main urban centers such as Mombasa (Kenya), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Maputo (Mozambique) and Durban (South Africa) are supporting populations of 2 to 4 million each. Populations in these cities have increased dramatically without equivalent improvement in waste management infrastructures.
Unplanned settlement in Nairobi due to rapid urbanization without waste management structures put in place.
Urbanization.. The coastal region of the mainland states between Somalia and Mozambique is home to 25 million people. This represents 20 percent of the combined population of the mainland states living on 12 percent of the land. Population trends indicate a doubling of population in about 25 years in the major coastal cities of Mombasa, Dar es Salaam and Maputo, which are presently experiencing growth of 5.0%, 6.7% and 7.2% per annum, respectively (Mohammed and Francis, 2002).
Policy and regulatory approaches Enforcement – Constitutional provisions ( Kenya) – Environment Impact assessment Conditions Compliance Public Education Incentive-systems -Tax rebates of imported waste management technologies -Environmental awards
Clean up of Nairobi river and its adjacent environs
Section of Nairobi river passing through the slum of kibera in Nairobi.
Achievements Over the last decade, governments in Africa have begun to implement stricter regulations regarding effluents discharge standards. South Africa, Ghana, Mauritius
CHALLENGES: Policy and Regulations conflicts, Kenya Effluent Management Perspective Responsible Entity Local Government Ministry Ministry of Water and Irrigation National Environment Management Authority Ministry of Public Health Accredited Laboratories Infrastructure Development x Effluent Quality x x x x x -Monitoring x xxx Licensing/Permits x xx Enforcement xx x
Conclusion Africa-wide Effluent Management strategy is needed Develop and implement Compliance enhancing programs – Effective public education and awareness
References Public Health Act (Cap. 242) The Environmental Management and Co- ordination Act, 1999 UNEP/Nairobi Convention Secretariat and WIOMSA, 2009. The Status of Municipal Wastewater Management in the Western Indian Ocean Region. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, 82 pp. Water 360 Volume 2, number 1, 2012