Presentation on theme: "Copper Humans have copper 2mg/kg of body weight. Cupper intake 2-5 mg/daily. CU is absorbed from stomach & upper small intestine. 80% Of absorbed CU excreted."— Presentation transcript:
Copper Humans have copper 2mg/kg of body weight. Cupper intake 2-5 mg/daily. CU is absorbed from stomach & upper small intestine. 80% Of absorbed CU excreted through the bile, 16% enter back the intestine and 4% excreted in urine. Copper disterbution is shown in diagram below :-
Tissues blood liver Dietry intestine excretion ( feces ) Cu – Alb Bone marrow Nonerthro- cuprein kidney Erthrocuprein 60% R.B.C 40% Ceruloplasmin Cu- protein 93% 7% Urin
-: Rule of copper in humans 1 - It could facilitate iron absorption. 2 - It could be stimulatory to enzymes in hemoglobin biosynthesis pathways. 3 – It could be involved in mobilization of iron. 4 – Ceruloplasmine (cu-ptotein) enzyme oxidizes Fe 2+ to Fe 3+. 5 - Cu deficiency leads to lack of iron in new RBC. 6 – Cu deficiency in animals causes loss of hair color due to reduced tyrosinase activity. 7 - Tyrosinase converts tyrosine to the black pigment ( melanin ).
8 – Cu is constituent of cytochrome oxidase which is important to phosphorylation ( ATP production) Copper deficiency It could happend in infants due to severe copper deficiency which is characterized with : - Chronic diarrhea, leukocyte deficiency, with or without iron deficiency anemia. Excess copper storage :- It is a rare disease called Wilsons, disease (( 4-5/ miljon
It is acondition of excess copper storage in liver, brain and kidney which produces hepatic cirrhosis, brain damage and kidney dafect. Reversing symptoms by using –ve Cu balance, which is can be done by diet and use chelating agent eg. Penicillamine. Patients have defective metallothionein, a metal- binding protein, in which binds copper so tightly than normal individules. Also the blood level of ceraloplasmin is so low because of high storage of copper in liver,kidney and brain.
Copper hepatotoxicity : - Result from long-term hemodialysis, because of metalic tap water used. Water used from these taps contain 1ppm added to dialysis fluid, which must be completly deionized. Copper sulfate : ( CuSO 4 ) :- 1- Official antidote for phosphorous poisoning. 2- Used as fungicide in agriculture and swimming pools. 3- Used to test sugar in diabetic urine.Red ppt. Of copper oxide is a positive test. Cu 2+ + sugar Cu 2 O + sugar acids HO --
Zinc ( Zn) It is associated with metalloenzymes such as :- alcohol-,lactic- and malat dehydrogenase,D-lactat cytochrom C and reductase. Zinc daily requirment is 10-15 mg which comes from meat,fish, milk and nuts. Zinc deficiency :- Low Zn plasma levels are seen with alcoholic cirrhosis,tuberculous,painless ulcers, pulmonary infections,mongolism,myocardial infraction,and pregnancy.
Zinc toxicity Results from ingestion acidic food in metal containers and inhaling zinc oxide by workers. Symptoms : chills,fever, coughing,salvation & headache. Zinc sulfate It is used orally for wond healing following surgery in doses 220mg /3 times daily. Only side effect is diarrhea. It is also used as topical astringent.