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INDUCED HYPOTENSION Dr. Emeni Ophrii University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, Delhi.

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Presentation on theme: "INDUCED HYPOTENSION Dr. Emeni Ophrii University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, Delhi."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDUCED HYPOTENSION Dr. Emeni Ophrii University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, Delhi

2 Induced Hypotension Definition and objectives Historical background Purpose Indications Techniques with physiological basis, drugs Contraindications Limitations Post-operative care Specific applications Current status

3 Definition A technique that lowers blood pressure (BP) to reduce blood loss and the need for transfusion during surgery and to improve the quality of surgical field Also known as deliberate hypotension / controlled hypotension / hypotensive anaesthesia

4 Objectives Fall in systolic BP to 80-90 mmHg Fall in mean arterial pressure(MAP) to 50-65 mmHg Fall in 30% of MAP in hypertensive patients In majority of cases, optimum operating conditions are the goal, not a specific pressure → good communication between anaesthetist and surgeon is essential

5 Historical background Harvey Cushing proposed in 1917 Gardner practised first in 1946 Griffith and Gillies used high spinal analgesia Enderby used ganglionic blockers Trimetaphan Sodium nitroprusside(SNP)-1962 Halothane β-adrenergic blockers Nitroglycerine and labetalol-1970

6 Purpose Reduction in blood loss Haemodynamic and metabolic stability Less transfusion requirements Less infection transmission Improvement of surgical field Improved visualization → better and faster surgery Facilitation of vascular surgery Prevention of progressive stretching of thin walls of vessels → easier suturing and clipping (aortic surgery, AVM, intracranial aneurysm clipping )

7 Indications Neurosurgery (AVM, intracranial aneurysm, vascular tumours, trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy) Major orthopaedic surgery (spinal surgery, shoulder/hip arthroplasty) ENT surgery (middle ear surgery) Head and neck (faciomaxillary tumours, block dissection of neck, laryngectomy)

8 Indications… Ophthalmic surgery (intraocular tumours, vitrectomy, orbital surgery) Pelvic (Major gynaecological or rectal surgery) Plastic and reconstructive surgery Jehovah’s witness

9 Techniques Physical measures a) Postural manoeuvers - keeping operated area higher than heart Risk: Air embolism b) Artificial ventilation - lowers BP secondary to decreased venous return Pharmacological agents

10 Effects of posture on local blood pressure

11 Pharmacological agents Characteristics of an ideal agent Easy to administer Short onset time Effect should disappear quickly on discontinuation Rapid elimination No toxic metabolites Negligible effects on vital organs Predictable effect Dose dependent effect No ideal hypotensive pharmacological agent exists

12 Classification Used alone Inhalational anaesthetics Sodium nitroprusside Nitroglycerine Trimetaphan Prostaglandin E1 (Alprostadil) Adenosine Remifentanil Spinal/epi anaesthesia Alone or as adjunct Calcium channel blockers(nicardipine) β-blockers (propanolol,esmolol) Fenoldopam As adjunct only ACE inhibitors Clonidine

13 Principle of Induced Hypotension BP = Cardiac Output (CO) x Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR) CO = HR x SV PVR α 1/r4 Reduction in CO should be avoided as organ perfusion may be compromised Induce a low pressure, vasodilated circulation

14 Physiological effects of induced hypotension Marked physiological response designed to restore BP back to within normal range Central neuronal reflexes Arterial baroreceptors Cardiopulmonary receptors Hormonal changes Renin-angiotensin system Catecholamines

15 Physiological effects... Reflex rise in HR, myocardial contractility, vasomotor tone → Low pressure, hyperdynamic circulation May result in increasing vasodilator doses May require use of adjuncts

16 DrugsSite of actionPredominant actionSide effect Bupivacaine (spinal/ epidural) MedullaBlockade of sympathetic nervous system May need vasoconstrictor Ropivacaine (spinal/epidural) MedullaBlockade of sympathetic nervous system May need vasoconstrictor Opioids: remifentanil Heart: bradycardia Blockade of sympathetic nervous system none Inhalational anaesthetics (isoflurane, sevoflurane) Vessels: vasodilatation Blockade of α- adrenoceptors Resistance Need high concentration of adjuvants Anaesthetic Agents

17 DrugsSite of actionPredominant action Side effect /Problem Sodium nitroprusside Resistance/ capacitance vsls: Vasodilatation Direct actingCyanide toxicity Srict monitoring NitroglycerineCapacitance vessels: vasodilatation Direct actingResistance, strict monitoring PGE1 (Alprostadil)Resistance vessels: vasodilatation Heart - ↓ chronotropic Direct actingcost Calcium channel blockers (Nicardipine) Resistance vessels: vasodilatation Heart - ↓i onotropic Direct actingnone FenoldopamResistance vessels: vasodilatation Dopamine DA1 receptor agonist cost AdenosineResistance vessels: vasodilatation Direct actingCost Histamine release Vasodilators

18 DrugsSite of actionPredominant action Side effect TrimetaphanVessels: vasodilatation Heart: ↓ contractility Blockade of the ganglia of ANS Histamine release Resistance LabetalolVessels: vasodilatation Heart: ↓ contractility α/β adrenoceptor antagonist Slow onset EsmololHeart: bradycardia ↓ contractility β-adrenoceptor antagonist Resistance Cardiac failure ClonidineCNSPresynaptic α- adrenoceptor agonist Unpredictable effect Autonomic nervous system inhibitors

19 ACE inhibitors DrugsSite of actionPredominant action Side effect Captopril, enalapril Vessels: vasodilatation Angiotensin ІІ inhibitors Long duration of action

20 CharacteristicsSodium nitroprusside (SNP) Nitroglycerine (NTG)Labetalol Onset of actionRapid onset, Rapid recovery Rapid onset, moderate slow recovery Gradual onset, Slower recovery DurationEvanescent actionShort actingLong acting Method of administration IV drip (0.01% solution)IV drip (0.01% in 5%D/W or 0.9% NS) IV injection repeated in increment Mode of actionDirect effect: resistance / capacitance vessels Direct : capacitance vessels predominantly α and β adrenoceptor antagonist TachycardiaVery commonMay occurNone Cardiac outputDepends on many factors (posture, HR, preload, afterload, drugs,volume status) Slight decrease Blood brain barrierPronounced dysfunction None

21 CharacteristicsSodium nitroprusside (SNP)Nitroglycerine (NTG) Labetalol MetabolismTo cyanide, thiocyanateDegraded rapidly in liver Degraded in liver StabilityAvailable as powder. Unstable when reconstituted. Protect from light & use within 12 hrs Stable, colourless, Absorbed by plastics Stable Dose0.5-1.5 μg/kg/min Total dose not to exceed 1.5mg/kg in 4 hrs Plasma CN conc should not exceed 3 μmol/l Start - 10-20μg/min, 1-4 μg/kg/min 0.2-0.4mg/kg followed by increment Histamine release unknown Rebound hypertension Occurs in absence of β blockade Does not occur Intracranial pressure Increases in early stageIncreasesDoes not increase

22

23 Cyanide Toxicity - Mechanism

24 Cyanide toxicity - Manifestations Resistance to high infusion rates of SNP Metabolic acidosis, raised lactate levels Elevated venous oxygen saturation Progressive hypotension unresponsive to fluids & vasopressors but responsive to thiosulphate Cardiovascular collapse No specific laboratory test but lethal cyanide level in blood is approx 500 μg/dl

25 Cyanide toxicity - Management Sodium thiosulphate Bolus injection - 30mg/kg Continuous infusion - 60mg/kg/hr Hydroxocobalamine (B12) Prevents ↑ in CN conc. in erythrocytes Bolus - 50mg/kg Infusion - 100mg/kg/hr Fluid replacement Acidosis correction

26 Monitoring during induced hypotension ECG – myocardial perfusion, drug effects Accurate BP monitoring Gold standard is direct intra-arterial measurement Capnography – disconnection alarm, indicator of air embolism Value as an index of PaCO 2 is limited due to ↑dead space Pulse oximetry – allows adjustment of FiO 2 to compensate for V/Q mismatch EEG/evoked potential – reserved for neurosurgery, CPB, severe hypotension Transcranial doppler velocimetry

27 Safe conduct of induced hypotension Onset & degree of hypotension A reliable intravenous line Horizontal position Monitoring Initiate only after intubation & steady anaes state Hypotension to be induced slowly over 10-15 min Proper posture and optimal venous drainage Adequate fluids but prevent overhydration

28 Safe conduct… Maintenance of near normal PaCO 2 & acid base balance Hypocapnia – vasoconstriction Alter blood PH Increase oxygen consumption Inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

29 Safe conduct… Oxygenation Increased intrapulmonary shunt Decreased cardiac output A high FiO 2 (0.4-0.5 or higher) during induced hypotension is recommended

30 Contraindications Inexperience Infants Pregnancy Fixed cardiac output Coronary artery, renal, cerebral disease Hypovolemia Severe anaemia

31 Limitation Risk of tissue hypoxia by reducing microcirculatory autoregulation of vital organs and by inhibiting ANS The goal is to maintain a pressure sufficiently low to allow reduction of bleeding without suppressing microcirculatory autoregulation of vital organs

32 Complications Coronary artery thrombosis Cerebral thrombosis Cardiac arrest Temporary & permanent neurologic deficit Failure of technique Resistance & rebound Post-operative reactionary haemorrhage Tissue trauma

33 Post-operative care Maintenance of airway Provision of supplemental oxygen Analgesia Warm environment Respiratory & cardiovascular monitoring Adequacy of blood volume Positioning

34 Specific applications Neurosurgery - Cerebral aneurysm surgery Spinal surgery- scoliosis correction Ophthalmic surgery ENT surgery Pregnancy

35 Cerebral aneurysm surgery Low pressure circulation Reduces blood loss → improves visualisation Reduces aneurysm transmural pressure Safe application of clip Reduces risk of intra-operative rupture If aneurysm ruptures → less bleeding, rapid identification & control of bleeding point Vasodilators started after opening dura to avoid ↑in ICP Avoid the technique in presence of preoperative vasospasm and if a feeding artery is to be temporarily clipped

36 Scoliosis surgery General anaesthesia Monitoring of spinal cord function using wake-up test or somatosensory evoked potential Blood loss is massive → BP to be reduced slowly (preferably under SSEP monitoring) and only to the point at which operating conditions become satisfactory

37 Ophthalmic surgery Uveal dissection - prevention of bleeding into vitreous Choroidal melanoma - requires period of choroidal ischaemia ENT surgery High level of difficulty and impossibility of controlling bleeding by using clamps on afferent vessels, vertebral-basilar artery and external carotid artery makes induced hypotension a choice in ENT surgery

38 Pregnancy ↓ BP → ↓ uterine blood flow → fetal asphyxia Hypotension not to be induced unless considered as life saving measure. Nitroglycerine - least toxic Close fetal heart rate monitoring mandatory – serves as a guide to safe level for hypotension and hyperventilation

39 Current status Surgeries with low/moderate bleeding potential e.g. middle ear, eye, neurosurgery Induced hypotension used in light of benefit/risk ratio Surgeries with moderate bleeding potential e.g. vascular, major orthopaedic surgery Benefit from combination of hemodilution with autologous transfusion with induced hypotension Surgeries with high bleeding potential e.g. cardiac surgery/liver transplantation Use of induced hypotension has decreased

40 Current status… The best efficacy combined with ease of use and lack of toxicity belongs to techniques of hypotensive anaesthesia that associate analgesia and hypotension at clinical concentration Epidural anaesthesia – not always practical Remifentanil along with propofol or inhalational agents at clinical concentration are preferred techniques because of their safety and ease of use

41 References 1.Wylie and Churchill Davidson’s ‘A Practice of Anaesthesia’ 6 th edition 2.Wylie and Churchill Davidson’s ‘A Practice of Anaesthesia’ 7 th edition 3.Miller’s Anesthesia 5 th edition 4.International Practice of Anaesthesia by Prys- Roberts and Brown 5.Degoute CS. Controlled hypotension. Drugs 2007; 67(7): 1053-1076


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