Presentation on theme: "Dr Abdollahi. Essential hypertension is arbitrarily defined as sustained increases in systemic blood pressure (systolic blood pressure higher than 160."— Presentation transcript:
Essential hypertension is arbitrarily defined as sustained increases in systemic blood pressure (systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mm Hg) independent of any known cause.
Treatment of essential hypertension with appropriate drug therapy decreases the incidence of stroke and congestive heart failure.
Hypertension is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, and the longer the patient has hypertension the higher the risk of end organ damage. Patients with two risk factors (hypertension, smoking, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, or the elderly) for coronary artery disease should be treated as if they have coronary artery disease
Management of anesthesia for patients with essential hypertension includes preoperative evaluation of drug therapy and extent of the disease plus a consideration of the implications of exaggerated systemic blood pressure responses elicited by painful intraoperative stimulation Management of anesthesia
Preoperative evaluation of patients with essential hypertension begins with a determination of the adequacy of systemic blood pressure control and a review of the pharmacology of the antihypertensive drugs being used for therapy perioperative period. Preoperative Evaluation
Evidence of major organ dysfunction (congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, cerebral ischemia, renal dysfunction) must be sought. Patients with essential hypertension have an increased risk of coronary artery disease.
Additional monitoring, including intra-arterial catheter monitoring, is justified for significant operations. Patients with increased pulse pressure have increased perioperative and long-term complications. Essential hypertension is associated with a shift to the right of the curve for the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, emphasizing that these patients are more vulnerable to cerebral ischemia should perfusion pressures decrease. Monitoring
Detection of renal dysfunction due to chronic hypertension may influence the selection of drugs, particularly if elimination from the plasma depends on renal clearance or metabolites of the drugs are known potential nephrotoxins (fluoride from metabolism of sevoflurane).
Hypertension should be treated preoperatively because the incidence of hypotension and evidence of myocardial ischemia on the ECG during the maintenance of anesthesia is increased in patients who remain hypertensive before the induction of anesthesia.
Perioperative therapy with B-adrenergic blockers for at least 7 days and continued for 30 days postoperatively reduces the risk of cardiac morbidity and death 90% for patients at risk. Perioperative therapy with clonidine started the night before surgery and continued for 4 days reduces the 30-day and 2-year mortality rates.
Administration of intravenous B-blockers just prior to surgery and continued for 7 days reduces the risk of death 50%. Prophylactic cardiac risk reduction therapy with B-blockers or clonidine of patients with coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, or two risk factors (age greater than or equal to 60, hypertension, cholesterol higher than 240 mg/dl, diabetes, or smoking) reduces risk of perioperative death. Appropriate dosing of B-adrenergic blockers is important to avoid sequelae
Despite therapy, systemic blood pressure increases during the intraoperative period are more likely to occur in patients with a history of essential hypertension regardless of the degree of pharmacologic control of systemic blood pressure established preoperatively. Furthermore, the incidence of postoperative cardiac complications is not increased when hypertensive patients undergo elective operations as long as the preoperative diastolic blood pressure is not more than 110 mm Hg and heart rate is controlled.
Pretreatment with a B-blocker or the a2-agonist, such as clonidine, may be useful in blunting exaggerated sympathetic nervous system responses and reduces perioperative mortality rate.
Induction of anesthesia with intravenous drugs is acceptable, remembering that an exaggerated decrease in systemic blood pressure may occur, particularly if hypertension is present preoperatively. Sodium thiopental, propofol, midazolam, synthetic opioids (fentanyl, sufentanil,alfentanil, remifentanil), and etomidate all have been used to induce anesthesia. Induction of Anesthesia
Any anesthetic is acceptable if used with appropriate dosing and careful monitoring. Etomidate or combinations of midazolam and fentanyl are frequently used because of their limited hemodynamic effects. Ketamine is rarely selected for induction of anesthesia in patients with essential hypertension because it can increase systemic blood pressure and cause tachycardia, which may lead to myocardial ischemia..
Placement of an intra-arterial pressure monitor prior to induction of anesthesia and prophylactic infusions of the vasoconstrictor phenylephrine can reduce hemodynamic perturbations with induction of anesthesia
Hemodynamic changes with induction most likely reflect unmasking of decreased intravascular fluid volume due to chronic hypertension combined with a stiffening of the arterial vasculature.
Hypertension can occur during direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation in patients with essential hypertension but may be attenuated with administration of opioids and B- adrenergic blockers. Tachycardia may lead to episodes of myocardial ischemia. A single 1-minute episode of myocardial ischemia increases the risk of perioperative cardiac morbidity tenfold and death twofold.
If the patient has a recognized difficult airway precluding direct laryngoscopy, heart rate control is of prime importance, including possibly selecting alternative approaches such as fiberoptic intubation.
Hypoxia, tachycardia, hypotension, hypertension, and myocardial ischemia must be avoided. Yet, an excessive concentration or dose of anesthetic drugs can produce hypotension, which is as undesirable as hypertension. An important concept for limiting pressor responses elicited by tracheal intubation is to limit the duration of direct laryngoscopy to less than 15 seconds if possible. In addition, the administration of laryngotracheal lidocaine immediately before placement of the tube in the trachea will minimize any additional pressor response.
The goal during maintenance of anesthesia is to adjust the concentrations of anesthetics so tachycardia and wide fluctuations in systemic blood pressure can be avoided. No anesthetic technique has been shown to be superior. Maintenance of Anesthesia
Combinations of volatile anesthetics with or without nitrous oxide and a narcotic are commonly used. Changes in the concentration of volatile anesthetics allow rapid adjustments in the depth of anesthesia in response to increases or decreases in arterial blood pressure.
Changes in surgical stimulation may lead to changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Additional doses of narcotics, B-blockers, and changes in the dose of volatile anesthetic can be used to control hemodynamics. Heart rate control is the most critical element for preventing cardiac morbidity and death. Heart rates above 120 beats/min increase mortality rate. Volatile anesthetics are useful for attenuating activity of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for these pressor responses.
The ability to rapidly increase the alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (because of its low blood solubilities) makes this volatile anesthetic uniquely efficacious for treating sudden increases in systemic blood pressure. Rapid changes in desflurane concentration may lead to tachycardia, hypertension,
pulmonary hypertension, and myocardial ischemia and should be avoided. A positive feedback situation can occur with desflurane anesthetics whereby a surgical stimulus can raise blood pressure, the anesthetist raises the desflurane concentration, which stimulates the sympathetic system causing the blood pressure to increase, which causes the anesthetist to further increase the desflurane concentration, which further raises the blood pressure.
Both intravenous and inhaled anesthetics can be used. For example, a nitrous oxide-opioid technique is acceptable for the maintenance of anesthesia, but the addition of a volatile anesthetic is often necessary to prevent hypertension, particularly during periods of maximal surgical stimulation.
Total intravenous anesthesia (combinations of dexmedetomidine, propofol, narcotics, and benzodiazepines) can also be used. Continuous intravenous infusions of phenylephrine, nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, carvedilol, or esmolol can be used to maintain normotension during the intraoperative period.
Hypotension that occurs during maintenance of anesthesia is often treated by decreasing the concentrations of volatile anesthetic while infusing fluids intravenously to increase intravascular fluid volume. Sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine, or vasoconstrictors such as phenylephrine may be necessary to restore perfusion pressures until the underlying cause of the hypotension can be corrected
The choice of intraoperative monitors for patients with coexisting essential hypertension is influenced by the complexity of the surgery. The ECG is monitored with the goal of recognizing changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia. Invasive monitoring with an intra-arterial pressure monitor is commonly used.
Pulmonary artery catheters may be considered if major surgery is planned and there is evidence preoperatively of left ventricular dysfunction, although there is no evidence that demonstrates improved outcomes with pulmonary artery catheter monitoring. Monitoring with transesophageal echocardiography is an alternative to placement of a pulmonary artery catheter.
A regional anesthetic is an excellent choice in patients with multiple medical conditions scheduled for peripheral surgery. Whatever the choice of anesthetic, B-adrenergic blockers, a2-agonist clonidine, and sedatives can be used to reduce sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Patients with cardiac disease who are scheduled for elective surgery can have episodes of myocardial ischemia in the days prior to surgery.
The night before surgery is stressful and prophylactic B- blockade or donidine can reduce the risk of sympathetic stimulation resulting in tachycardia and subsequent myocardial ischemia.. There is the erroneous belief that minor surgery causes minor stressPatients scheduled for ophthalmic surgery, a minor outpatient procedure, commonly have sympathetic stimulation resulting in preoperative hypertension..
Appropriate dosing of all medications is essential and inappropriate dosing may lead to hypotension, bradycardia, and increased morbidity and mortality rates. All medications have a therapeutic index. Withholding antihypertensive medications may lead to withdrawal phenomena and increase the morbidity and mortality rates.
Hypertension in the early postoperative period is a frequent occurrence in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of essential hypertension. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of B-blockers or clonidine can reduce these episodes of hypertension and reduce risk of perioperative ischemia and death Postoperative Management
If hypertension persists despite B-blockers and adequate analgesia, it may be necessary to pharmacologically decrease systemic blood Pressure utilizing a continuous intravenous infusion of nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, or intermittent injections of hydralazine (5 to 20 mg IV) or labetalol (0.1 to 0.5 mg/ kg IV).
Tachycardia in the postoperative period must be actively avoided as it increases morbidity and mortality rates. A heart rate of 120 beats/min raises the risk of postoperative death
If a patient needs a medication to control blood pressure and heart rate while at home, he will likely need it during surgery and postoperative care. Withdrawal of antihypertensive and anti-ischemic medications in the perioperative period increases cardiac risk