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FF EDFD 211/Prof. L. Olegario March 06, 2012 Fostering High Order Thinking Skills Jo Lumawig 1.

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Presentation on theme: "FF EDFD 211/Prof. L. Olegario March 06, 2012 Fostering High Order Thinking Skills Jo Lumawig 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 FF EDFD 211/Prof. L. Olegario March 06, 2012 Fostering High Order Thinking Skills Jo Lumawig 1

2 “It was such good fortune for people in power that most people do not think.” swf Adolf Hitler 2

3 Presentation Objectives 1. To identify and define the different high order thinking skills 2. To explain basic principles behind these skills 3. To identify different classroom strategies to foster these skills 3

4 Sources Santrock, J. (2009). Educational Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill. Sternberg, R. & Williams, W. (2002). Educational Psychology. Boston: Ally & Bacon Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational Psychology. Boston: Pearson Education Inc. 4 PRINT ELECTRONIC Association of American Colleges and Universities. Creative Thinking Value Rubric. Retrieved from

5 Sources Hamza, M. & Griffith, K. (2006) Fostering Problem Solving & Creative Thinking in the Classroom: Cultivating a Creative Mind! National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19. Retrieved from 5 Facione, P. (1992). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. Retrieved from Haskell, R. (2001) Transfer of learning: Cognition, Instruction, and Reasoning. Retrieved from learning+functional+fixedness& source

6 Sources 6 Mestre, J. (2002). Transfer of Learning: Issues and Research Agenda. Retrieved from Subedi, B. (2004). Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning. International Education Journal Vol 5, No 4. Retrieved from

7 Presentation Outline 1. Transfer of learning 2. Critical thinking 3. Creative thinking 4. Problem solving Definition Basic principles Practical strategies 7

8 Transfer of Learning 8

9 9 Definition

10 Transfer of Learning “the productive use of cognitive tools and motivations” (Corte, as cited by Woolfolk, 2002) 10 “the ability to apply knowledge or procedures learned in one context to new contexts” (Mestre, 2002)

11 Transfer of Learning “…when learning in one context with one set of materials impacts on performance in another context or with different but related set of materials, then transfer of training has occurred.” (Subedi, 2004) 11

12 Transfer of Learning knowledge learned new situations productive new skills or tasks applied / affect related 12

13 Transfer of Learning addition multiplication applied / affect example 13 productive new skills related

14 Transfer of Learning tighten a screw using a screwdriver no screwdriver? example use a coin or fingernail cannot tighten Positive transferNegative transfer 14

15 Transfer of Learning Negative transfer Functional fixedness – the inability to think of “new” ways to use learning. 15

16 Transfer of Learning Types of (positive) transfer: 1. Low road transfer 2. High road transfer reading writing using the computer driving a car riding a bike 16 using statistics for research ed psych principles for teaching

17 Transfer of Learning High road transfer Forward-reaching Backward-reaching learning statistics remembering how to compose a formal letter 17

18 Transfer of Learning Strategies 1. Put relevance to knowledge 18 2. Teach for understanding, not retention of facts

19 Critical Thinking 19

20 20 Definition

21 Critical Thinking “purposeful, reflective judgment (through) reasoned consideration of evidence… which results in interpretation, analysis… in deciding what to believe or what to do.” (Facione, 1992) 21

22 Critical Thinking conscious effort believe or not / action to take Interpret Analyze Explain Evaluate Infer Evidences Contexts Methods Standards 22

23 Critical Thinking MindfulnessMindlessness Conscious thinking Results to: -creation -being open -analyzing Thinking without analyzing Results to: -routinary reaction -one perspective -accepting without reason 23

24 Critical Thinking Non critical thinker Collects information Draws conclusion missing 24

25 Critical Thinking Critical thinker Collects information Draws conclusion Evaluates information Evaluates conclusion 25

26 Critical Thinking Critical thinker Collects information Draws conclusion using logic Evaluates information Evaluates logical conclusion 26

27 27 Is critical thinking negative thinking? Critical Thinking

28 Strategies 2. Ask 3. Examine 4. Argue 5. Compare and evaluate 1. Believe 28

29 Critical Thinking logic-model1.htm mple/kog-ct-chem-1a-sample.pdf Tools for critical thinking 29 http://www.teach-

30 Critical Thinking Reciting Defining Describing Stating Listing Analyze Infer Connect Synthesize Criticize Evaluate Create 30

31 Creative Thinking 31 solutions-to-their.html

32 Creative Thinking 32 Definition edfd211-highorderthinkingskills-works-030512.ppt

33 Creative Thinking “the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems” (Santrock, 2009) 33

34 Creative Thinking Product of creativity -intended -functional (Woolfolk, 2007) -not only in the arts (Sternberg, 2002) 34

35 Creative Thinking Myths about creativity Creativity is directly related to intelligence. Almost all creative people are intelligent but not all intelligent people are creative. 35

36 Creative Thinking Myths about creativity People are born creative. Creativity can be developed. 36

37 Creative Thinking Myths about creativity Creativity is intertwined with negative qualities. There are more “odd” people who are not creative. 37

38 Creative Thinking Three components that complete CREATIVITY: Creativity motivation process skill social 38

39 Creative Thinking PreparationIncubation InsightEvaluation Elaboration The Creative Process (Santrock, 2009) 39 -can be suspended by many moments of incubation and evaluation

40 Creative Thinking PreparationIncubation InsightEvaluationElaboration The Creative Process “Creativity is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.” -Thomas Edison 40

41 Strategies 2. Design the learning environment 3. Go individual first, then by group 5. Focus on intrinsic motivation 4. Encourage taking risks 1. Believe Creative Thinking 41

42 Creative thinkingCritical thinking *divergent *convergent *create something new *assess something that exists *violate accepted principles *apply accepted principles 42

43 43 Problem Solving

44 44 Problem Solving Definition

45 Problem Solving the process of finding a suitable answer to a question, or a specific solution to a problem 45

46 Problem Solving Steps in problem solving 1. Realize the problem 2. List down steps or strategies to find a solution. 3. Decide on a solution and implement. 4. Evaluate. 46

47 Problem Solving Evaluate Was the problem solved? Was the goal achieved? Was the process efficient? Was the product effective? Evaluate in different contexts and times. 47

48 Problem Solving Approaches Sub-goaling Means-end analysis Algorithms Heuristics 48

49 Problem Solving Approaches Sub-goaling -setting smaller objectives to meet the bigger goal 49 Means-end analysis -starts with analyzing the goal (end) and finding the way to achieve the goal (means)

50 Problem Solving 50 Algorithms -solving problems based on set rules Heuristics -solving problems based on “rules” but does not assure the best solution

51 Problem Solving Teaching Problem Solving Skills 1.Make sure students clearly understand the problem. 2. Encourage students to think from different perspectives. 51

52 Problem Solving 3. Teach students the different strategies in solving problems. 4. Expose students to real-life problems. 52

53 Problem Solving Factors that hinder problem solving 1. Functional fixedness or fixation 2. Lack of motivation 3. Inability to control emotion 53

54 Problem Solving Learning strategies Problem-basedProject-based Objective: solve a problem Constructivist approach Emphasis on the process Concrete evidence of solution 54

55 High Order Thinking Skills Transfer of learning – application of knowledge in different contexts Critical thinking– purposeful judgment of evidence to reach a decision Problem solving – finding a suitable answer to a question Creative thinking– thinking of novel ways to find solutions 55..\CT109\ct109-WeHaveAProblem-030612.ppt ct109-WeHaveAProblem-030612.ppt

56 High Order Thinking Importance understanding concepts and solving problems independent thinking and problem solving solving more complex problems giving-the-philippines-a-total-makeover/ office school society 56

57 “It is such good fortune for society when people think. So let’s do our part as teachers.” Jo Lumawig 57

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