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Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8

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Presentation on theme: "Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8"— Presentation transcript:

1 Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8

2 Metacognition and learning strategies

3 Cognitive Processes Lower-level processes Higher-level processes

4 Metacognition develops over time Greater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement

5 Effective Learning Strategies
Overt strategies Covert strategies

6 Factors Affecting Strategy Use

7 Diversity, Disabilities, & Exceptional Abilities
Cultural differences in students’ epistemic beliefs definition & purpose of learning role of effort learning strategies Students with disabilities may need explicit instruction, scaffolding

8 Knowledge Transfer Positive transfer Negative transfer
Specific transfer General transfer

9 Factors Affecting Transfer
Meaningfulness of original learning Similarity to original learning Material principles, theories more easily transferred than discrete facts Relevance context-free material more easily transferred than context-bound Cultural environment, expectations

10 Problem Solving Well-defined problems Ill-defined problems

11 Problem-Solving Strategies
Algorithm Heuristic

12 Factors Affecting Problem Solving
Working memory capacity Encoding Metacognitive processes

13 Creativity Two components new, original behavior productive result
Involves divergent thinking

14 Fostering Creativity Show students that creativity is valued
Focus on internal rewards Promote mastery of subject area Ask thought-provoking questions Give students freedom, security to take risks Provide time

15 Critical thinking

16 Critical Thinking Evaluating accuracy, credibility, worth of information and lines of reasoning verbal reasoning argument analysis probabilistic reasoning hypothesis testing

17 Fostering Critical Thinking
Teach fewer topics, greater depth Encourage intellectual skepticism Model critical thinking Provide opportunities to practice Ask questions Debate controversial issues Help students understand that critical thinking involves considerable mental effort, but it’s worth it Embed critical thinking skills in authentic activities

18 Diversity in complex thinking processes

19 Diverse populations Respect culture
multicultural background enhances critical thinking skills Assist students who have special needs

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