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Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 7th edition Jeanne Ellis Ormrod © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Complex Cognitive Processes.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 7th edition Jeanne Ellis Ormrod © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Complex Cognitive Processes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Educational Psychology: Developing Learners 7th edition Jeanne Ellis Ormrod © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Complex Cognitive Processes Chapter 8

2 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Metacognition and learning strategies

3 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Processes Lower-level processes Higher-level processes

4 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Metacognition develops over time Greater metacognitive awareness = more likely to use effective strategies, have high achievement

5 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Effective Learning Strategies Overt strategies Covert strategies

6 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Strategy Use ??

7 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diversity, Disabilities, & Exceptional Abilities Cultural differences in students epistemic beliefs definition & purpose of learning role of effort learning strategies Students with disabilities may need explicit instruction, scaffolding

8 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Knowledge Transfer Positive transfer Negative transfer Specific transfer General transfer

9 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Transfer Meaningfulness of original learning Similarity to original learning Material principles, theories more easily transferred than discrete facts Relevance context-free material more easily transferred than context-bound Cultural environment, expectations

10 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Problem Solving Well-defined problems Ill-defined problems

11 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Problem-Solving Strategies Algorithm Heuristic

12 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting Problem Solving Working memory capacity Encoding Metacognitive processes

13 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Creativity Two components new, original behavior productive result Involves divergent thinking

14 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Fostering Creativity Show students that creativity is valued Focus on internal rewards Promote mastery of subject area Ask thought-provoking questions Give students freedom, security to take risks Provide time

15 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Critical thinking

16 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Critical Thinking Evaluating accuracy, credibility, worth of information and lines of reasoning verbal reasoning argument analysis probabilistic reasoning hypothesis testing

17 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Fostering Critical Thinking Teach fewer topics, greater depth Encourage intellectual skepticism Model critical thinking Provide opportunities to practice Ask questions Debate controversial issues Help students understand that critical thinking involves considerable mental effort, but its worth it Embed critical thinking skills in authentic activities

18 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diversity in complex thinking processes

19 Educational Psychology, 7 th edition Jeanne E. Ormrod 8-19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Diverse populations Respect culture multicultural background enhances critical thinking skills Assist students who have special needs


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