14-3 Learning Objectives After Studying Chapter 14, You will know How teams contribute to your organization’s effectiveness. What makes the new team environment different from the old. How groups become teams. Why groups sometimes fail. How to build an effective team. How to manage your team’s relationships with other teams. How to manage conflict.
14-4 The Contributions of Teams Well-managed teams are powerful forces that can deliver all desired results Teams can increase productivity, improve quality, and reduce costs Teams can enhance speed and be powerful forces for innovation and change Teams can be useful learning mechanisms Team members can provide one another with feedback, identify opportunities for growth and development, train, coach, and mentor
14-5 The New Team Environment The words group and team are often used interchangeably hover they are not the same A working group is a collection of people who work in the same area A team is formed of people with complementary skills who trust one another and are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and a common approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
14-7 Types of Teams Work teams make or do things such as manufacture, assemble, sell, or provide service Project and development teams work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed Parallel teams operate separately from the regular work structure of the firm on a temporary basis Management teams coordinate and provide direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits Transnational teams are work teams composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries
14-8 Self Managed Teams Self-managed teams are autonomous work groups in which workers ware trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by first-line supervisors
14-9 Self Managed Teams Traditional Work Groups have no managerial responsibilities Quality circles are voluntary groups of people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions about quality Semiautonomous work groups make decisions about managing and carrying out major production activities Autonomous work groups control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks
14-10 How Groups Become Real Teams Groups become true teams via Basic group activities Basic group activities Passage of time Passage of time Team development activities Team development activities
14-11 Why Groups Sometimes Fail Failure lies in not knowing and doing what makes teams successful Team is often just a word used by management to describe merely putting people into groups Teams sometimes are launched with little or no training or support system Teams are not truly empowered
14-12 Building Effective Teams Team effectiveness is defined by three criteria Productive output of the team meets or exceeds the standards of quantity and quality Team members realize satisfaction of their personal needs Team members remain committed to working together again
14-13 Motivating Teamwork When working in a group individuals may display one of the following characteristics Social loafing occurs when individuals work less hard and are less productive in a group Social facilitation effect occurs when individuals work harder when in a group than when working alone To motivate individual members of the team it helps if: Group members are held accountable Rewards are tied to team performance The team’s task is motivating
14-14 Building Effective Teams: Norms and Roles Norms are shared beliefs about how people should think and behave Roles are different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave Task specialist is an individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members Team maintenance specialist is an individual who develops and maintains team harmony
14-15 Building Effective Teams: Norms and Roles Leaders may perform one of the following roles Relating includes exhibiting more social and political awareness Scouting means seeking information from managers, peers, and specialists Persuading means not only influencing the team, but also obtaining external support Empowerment includes delegating authority, being flexible regarding team decisions, and coaching
14-16 Building Effective Teams: Cohesiveness Cohesiveness refers to how attractive the team is to its members, how motivated the members are to remain in the team, and the degree to which team members influence one another Cohesiveness is important because It contributes to member satisfaction It has a major impact on performance
14-18 Building Cohesiveness and High Performance Norms Recruit members with similar attitudes, values and backgrounds Maintain high entrance and socialization standards Keep the team small Help the team succeed, and publicize its success Present a challenge from outside the team Tie rewards to team performance
14-19 Managing Lateral Relationships Gatekeeper is a team member who keeps abreast of current developments and provides the team with relevant information Informing is a team strategy that entails making decisions with the team and then informing outsiders of its intentions Parading is a team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility Probing is a team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their needs, and experiment with solutions
14-20 Lateral Role Relationships Work-flow relationships emerge as materials are passed from one group to another Service relationships exist when top management centralizes an activity to which a large number of other units must gain access Advisory relationships are created when teams with problems call on centralized sources of expert knowledge
14-21 Lateral Role Relationships Audit relationships develop when people not directly in the chain of command evaluate the methods and performances of other teams Stabilization relationships involve auditing before the fact Liaison relationships involve intermediaries between teams
14-22 Conflict The complex maze of interdependencies throughout organizations provides boundless opportunity for conflict to arise Many things cause great potential for destructive conflict The sheer number and variety of contacts Ambiguities in jurisdiction and responsibility Differences in goals Inter-group competition for scarce resources Different perspectives held by members of different unites
14-23 Conflict People believe they have benefited from a conflict when A new solution is implemented, the problem is solved, and it is unlikely to emerge again Work relationships have been strengthened and people believe they can work together productively in the future
14-24 Conflict Styles Avoidance is a common reaction to conflict in which people do nothing to satisfy themselves or others Accommodation means cooperating on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about your own interests Compromise involves moderate attention to both parties concerns
14-25 Conflict Styles Competing is a highly competitive response in which people focus strictly on their own wishes and are unwilling to recognize the other person’s concerns Collaboration emphasizes both cooperation and assertiveness, the goal is to maximize satisfaction for both parties
14-27 Conflict When conflict arises the best solutions come from collaboration and focusing on super ordinate goals Super ordinate goals are higher-level goals that take priority over specific individual or group goals
14-28 Being a Mediator Managers spend a lot of time trying to resolve conflict between other people This is known as being a mediator Four step strategy Investigate the dispute Decide how to resolve the dispute Take action by explaining the decision and reasoning Follow up by making sure everyone understands the solution
14-29 Looking Ahead Chapter 15 Communicating The important advantages of two-way communication. Communication problems to avoid. When and how to use the various communication channels. Ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver” of information. How to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communication. How to work with the company grapevine. The advantages and characteristics of the boundaryless organization.
14-30 Group Activities Group activities include Forming – group members attempt to lay down ground rules for acceptable behavior Storming – hostilities and conflict arise as people jockey for positions of power and status Norming – group members agree on their shared goals and norms Performing – the group channels its energies into performing its tasks Return
14-31 Passage of Time Groups pass through critical periods, or times, when they are particularly open to formative experiences The initial meeting when rules, roles are established Meeting the initial deadline Return
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