2The Community of the Kingdom Brendan Byrne, pp. 63-68 Long sermon outlining attitudes and behaviors that are to distinguish the new community.Jesus instructs 12 apostles, wider group of disciples, and crowds of people on who they must be and how they must behave before the wider group they will serve.
3Parallels: Matthew & Luke BeatitudesMatt 5:3-12; Luke 6:20-23Love of One’s EnemiesMatt 5:38-48; Luke 6:27-36JudgingMatt 7:1-5; Luke 6:37-42By Their FruitsMatt 7:15-20; Luke 6:43-45House Built upon RockMatt 7:21-27; Luke 6:46-49
4Differences: Matthew vs. Luke Matthew includes much more material that either does not appear in Luke or that Luke saves for later.Material from the Q sourceLocation: Mount vs. PlainMatthew = 9 beatitudesLuke = 4 beatitudes + woesTheirs/those vs. Yours/youLuke - Jesus speaks directly to the people
5Beatitudes Beatitudes = characteristics of those God deems blessed Series of oxymoronsLuke’s view of salvation – coming reversal of fortuneVulnerability – need generosity of God, who pledged to act on behalf of the poor and marginalized.Blessed = fortunate/advantageousWoe = unfortunate
6Matthew vs. Luke – Beatitudes Poor in spirit vs. PoorMatthew focuses on spiritual povertyLuke does not focus solely on spiritual poverty, but uses poor in reference to social justice as well. Refers to the afflicted in general, in need of God’s generosity.Kingdom of Heaven vs. Kingdom of GodSame kingdom?Hunger & thirst for righteousness vs. Hunger nowRighteousness – justice for one personally and for the oppressedSpiritual condition vs. present, human condition
7Matt. vs. Luke – Love of Enemies Luke is more brief and more general.Matt 5:43-44 – not only love for neighbors, but for enemies as well.Matt 5:46-47 – tax collectors and GentilesLuke 6:32-35 – sinnersMatthew = “You, therefore, must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”Luke = “Be merciful, even as your Father is merciful.”Emphasize the mercy God offers
8On Judging Mark also addresses this issue (4:23-25). Matthew, Mark, and Luke“the measure you give will be the measure you get”Matthew and Luke – “judge not and you will not be judged”“Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye?” (Matt 7:3-4; Luke 6:41-42).HypocrisyDo people have the kind of understanding of others that would really allow them to make judgments?
9By their FruitsMatthew and Luke – People will be known by their fruits.Good trees do not bear bad fruit, and bad trees do not bear good fruit.Matthew returns to this topic again in 12:33-35, in response to the Pharisees accusation that Jesus drives out demons in the name of Beelzebub, the prince of demons.Main point: A good heart must be backed up by one’s actions (Luke 6:45).
10Wise and Foolish Builders The wise build their house upon rockLuke specifies further, the foundation of the house is upon rockNot only could the floods not cause the house to fall down, they could not even shake the house because it had been well builtBoth Matthew and Luke state that the foolish man’s house will fall down in a great way.Main point: Hear Jesus words and act upon them (Matt 7:24; Luke 6:47).
11Old Testament Parallels Leviticus 25Sabbath Year (every 7 yrs.)Year of Jubilee (every 50 yrs.)Emphasis: assisting poor (35-43)People will live safely in the land if they follow God’s decrees and obey His laws (18)Land is God’s to return to people (23,13)Property can’t be accumulated to the detriment of the poorHelp the poor; don’t charge them interest or profit from them (35-37)Luke 6:12-49The hungry will be satisfied (21)He who hears Jesus’ words and puts them into practice is like the man who built his house upon rock – it will not be shaken (47-48)Love your enemies, and lend to them without expecting to get anything back (35)
12Old Testament Parallels (Cont.) Luke 6:12-49Lend w/o expecting anything in return (35)“give to everyone who asks you…” (30)Woe to the rich and to those who are well fed now (24-25)“give and it will be given to you…for with the measure you use, it will be measured to you” (38)Deuteronomy 15Sabbath Year - year of canceling debts (1)Creditor will not require payment (2)“there should be no poor among you” (4)Those who show ill will toward the needy and do not give will be found guilty of sin (9)God will richly bless those who fully obey Him and follow His commands (4-5, 10)
13Old Testament Parallels (Cont.) Isaiah 55:1-2; 65:6-7, 13-14Food and drink provided free of cost (55:1-2)SatisfactionRestoration“I will measure into their laps the full payment for their former deeds” (65:7)God’s servants vs. those who did not listen to God (65:13-14)Luke 6:12-49Beatitudes vs. WoesVerses 20-26“A good measure, pressed down, shaken together and running over, will be poured into your lap. For with the measure you use, it will be measured to you” (38)