2Terms and Peoplecaucus - a meeting of party members for the purpose of choosing a candidate.Andrew Jackson – popular war hero elected president as a Democrat in 1828Martin Van Buren – Jackson’s campaign manager who ran the first modern election campaign in 1828Jacksonian Democracy – a movement toward greater popular democracy and recognition of the common people as symbolized by Andrew Jackson
3spoils system – practice of giving government jobs to loyal party supporters Indian Removal Act – 1830 Act forcing the relocation of the Five Civilized Tribes from the southeast to present day OklahomaTrail of Tears – forced march to Oklahoma in the winter of 1838, during which 4,000 Cherokees died
4Whig – member of a political party formed in the Tariff of Abominations – name that opponents from the agricultural south gave to the high protective tariff of 1828John C. Calhoun – vice president who resigned to lead South Carolina’s fight over nullification in the Senatenullification – concept that a state could void a federal law that it deemed unconstitutionalWhig – member of a political party formed in the1830s, favored a strong federal government,protective tariffs, a national bank,and internal improvements
5The Election of 1824 President Monroe would not seek a third term. 4 candidates sought the Presidency in 1824:Secretary of State John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts was the most experienced.A congressional caucus of Democratic Republicans favored Georgian William Crawford.War hero Andrew Jackson of Tennessee and Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky were seen as Adams’ greatest competition
6Tension between Adams & Jackson Jackson received the most popular votes, but no candidate won a majority in the electoral college.When Adams named Clay to be Secretary of State, Jackson angrily called it a “corrupt bargain” and started preparing early to defeat Adams in 1828.In the House of Representatives, Adams was selected after Clay threw his support behind Adams.
7Adam’s Policies are Unpopular J. Adams/T. Jefferson die July 4th 1826.Very proud/patriotic man- never got over the fact he was a minority president.Continue to push the Republican agenda inherited from the Federalists (strong central gov’t)However, most voters wanted less power and less influence from the east.Adams promoted a national university, financial backing of scientific expeditions, reform patent system, and help sponsor the arts & literature.
8“ the spirit of improvement is abroad upon this earth” His opponents however, felt he was stretching the constitution too far.Jackson’s friends were determined to make Adam’s administration look bad.People began to believe he “stole” the election from Jackson.
9The Democratic Party is Born The Presidential campaign of 1828 marked a fundamental change in the national attitude toward political parties.Since the collapse of the Federalist Party (1820) the Republican Party was the only political party.Between 1826 & 1828, Adams and Jackson both are Republican- Adams – National Republican and Jackson-Democratic Republican
10After the election of 1828, Jackson’s Party is known as the Democratic Party Martin Van Buren (Little Magician)Political machine in NYC-favors for votesRevive Jefferson’s philosophy of gov’t- States’ Rights and little federal spending.Unite the “planters of the South and the plain people of the North.”
11Jackson Wins the White House With a new campaign style, still popular today.Most states eased voting qualification; few require property.Voter turnout was 3x than that of 1824.Jackson claim he is of humble origins and Adams is intellectual elitist.Jackson wins the election by a landslide.
13Jackson’s Appeal to the Common Citizen As the “People’s President,” Jackson symbolized America’s “get ahead” and “self-made” image.Born poor in a log cabin, Jackson was orphaned as a boy and wounded in the Revolutionary War.As an adult, he ventured west, earned a fortune as a lawyer and planter, and fame as an Indian fighter, and he was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans.His inauguration was attended by a rowdy crowd of common people.--- King Mob now ruled the nation
15Jackson seemed to symbolize the virtues of the new America- a common man who climbed the ladder of success, read to destroy aristocratic privileges wherever he found them.
16Jackson’s New Presidential Style Jackson’s Spoils SystemJackson limits appointees to federal jobs to 4-yr terms.Uses spoils-system-replaces former appointees with own friends.Friends become primary advisers, dubbed “kitchen cabinet.”
17The Kitchen CabinetIt was characteristic that most of his cabinet positions went to undistinguished men.Van Buren (Sec. of State) was exception.The core of his “Kitchen Cabinet” were Western Newspaper editors13 of which slipped through the kitchen door of the White House. (White House Advisors)
18A Political AllianceThe 1820’s and 30’s saw the arrival of many Catholic immigrants, especially from Ireland.The Republicans disliked the new arrivals.The Democrats welcomed them, this alliance would continue for years to come.
19Jackson “Removes” Native Americans Indian Removal Act of 1830Whites want to displace or assimilate Native Americans.Jackson- only solution is to move Native Americans off their land.- thinks assimilation can not work- too many troops needed to keep white out of native lands.
20Congress passes the Indian Removal Act of 1830 - funds treaties that force Native Americans west.Jackson pressures some tribes to move, forcibly removes others.
21The five civilized tribes were removed from their lands in the East and sent to “Indian Territory” in Oklahoma.
22The Cherokee Fight Back In 1832, Chief Justice Marshall ruled that the seizure of native lands was unconstitutional.-Worcester v. Geogia- state cannot rule Cherokee or invade their land-Jackson defied the ruling. “Justice Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”Federal agents sign treaty with minority who support relocationBy 1838, 20,000 remain- Van Buren orders removal of rest.
23In 1838, federal troops made 16,000 Cherokee move from the Southeast to Oklahoma. 800 mile trip by foot.Robbed by Gov’t officals and outlaws.At least 4,000 people died on the Trail of Tears.
25States’ Rights & the National Bank Andrew Jackson confronts two important issues during his presidency.- States’ Rights-National Bank
26States’ Rights The Nullification Theory - British try to flood U.S. with cheap goods; raised tariffs in 1824 and 1828.-V.P. John Calhoun calls it a Tariff of Abominations.- South depends on cotton; cannot buy cheaper manufactured goods from Britain, but forced to by from North.
27In 1828, Congress passed a high protective tariff. The goal was to promote industry, but the tariff raised the prices farmers had to pay for goods.Southerners called it the Tariff of Abominations.Tariffs were a continuing source of dispute between the industrial North (favored) and agricultural South (opposed).
28Calhoun devises the Nullification Theory - Questions the legality of applying federal law to states.-States can reject law it considers unconstitutional* States have the right to leave Union if nullification is denied.
29Resolution to the Nullification Crisis Hayne & Webster Debate States’ Rights- Senator Robert Hayne argues Southern view of tariff and states’ rights.-Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts defends the Union.-Jackson believes Union “must be preserved” ; Calhoun resigns.
30South Carolina RebelsIn 1832, Congress passes a lower tariff, S.C. is still displeased.Encouraged by Calhoun, states’ rights supporters call special convention.Tariffs of 1828 &’32 “unauthorized by the Constitution” and “null, void, and no law.”Called for the end of customs collection, and if federal forces came to collect, S.C. would immediately secede from the Union.
32Jackson Opposes the Bank Jackson vetoes bill to recharter Second Bank of the United StatesPresents bank as privileged institution that favors the wealthy.
33Pet Banks- Jackson puts federal money in state banks loyal to Democratic Party.- BUS president Nicholas Biddle unsuccessfully maneuvers to save bank.
34The Second National Bank divided Americans. Jacksonian Democratsfelt the National Bank symbolized “money power.”believed the new business economy encouraged corruption.opposed policies they felt enriched business at the expense of farmers and workers.Business Leadersbelieved the National Bank was necessary to maintain a stable supply of currency.In 1832, Congress voted to renew the Bank’s charter.Jackson vetoed the charter renewal.
35“ The Bank, Mr. Van Buren, is try to kill me, but I will kill it”
36Whig Party FormsPresidential vetoes were rare. Bank supporters denounced Jackson as a power-hungry tyrant and formed a new political party, the Whigs.-The Whigs were led by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Henry Clay of Kentucky.-Whigs favored a strong federal government, broad interpretation of the Constitution, protective tariffs, internal improvements, and moral reform. American System
37-Andrew Jackson, while stressing democracy for the common man, was seen as a tyrant by those who crossed him.-They referred to him mockingly as “King Andrew.”
38Jackson’s Legacy Martin Van Buren win 1836 - Pet banks print bank notes in excess of gold & silver they have.- Gov’t demands specie (gold,silver) to pay for public land.-Rush to exchange paper money for specie, banks stop taking paper money.-With no federal banks, state banks flooded the market with currency, causing extreme inflation.-The government stopped accepting paper money for land purchases, leading to a sudden drop in land values.
39Panic of 1837 Panic of 1837- bank closings, collapse of credit system: - people lose savings- more than 1/3 of population are out of work.Van Buren tries unsuccessfully to solve economic problems. Hurts him and the Democratic Party
40The resulting Panic of 1837 became the worst depression the nation had yet experienced. Inflation caused by the state banks hurt common people.The drop in land values led to bankruptcies. Many planters and farmers lost their land.A third of urban workers lost their jobs and wages dropped by 30%.
42“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” Harrison and Tyler- Whig William Henry Harrison beats Van Buren in 1840 election.-Harrison enacts Whig program to revitalize economy.- Dies one month later; succeeded by VP John Tyler-Tyler opposes many parts of Whig economic plan.-Tyler vetoed legislation to restore the National Bank and to enact Clay’s American System.