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© Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning 2015 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,

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Presentation on theme: "© Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning 2015 5 Biodiversity, Species Interactions,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control

2 © Cengage Learning 2015 Live in giant kelp forests By the early 1900s they had been hunted almost to extinction Partial recovery since 1977 Why care about sea otters? –Ethics –Tourism dollars –Keystone species Core Case Study: Southern Sea Otters - A Species in Recovery

3 © Cengage Learning 2015 Southern Sea Otter Fig. 5-1, p. 102

4 © Cengage Learning 2015 Five types of species interactions— competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism—affect the resource use and population sizes of the species in an ecosystem 5-1 How Do Species Interact?

5 © Cengage Learning 2015 Five basic types of interactions –Interspecific Competition –Predation –Parasitism –Mutualism –Commensalism Interspecific competition –Compete to use the same limited resources Most Species Compete with One Another for Certain Resources

6 © Cengage Learning 2015 Resource partitioning Species may use only parts of resource –At different times –In different ways Some Species Evolve Ways to Share Resources

7 © Cengage Learning 2015 Cape May Warbler Stepped Art Blackburnian Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Bay-breasted Warbler Fig. 5-2, p. 103 Sharing the Wealth

8 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 5-3, p. 104 Fruit and seed eatersInsect and nectar eaters Greater Koa-finch Kuai Akialaoa Amakihi Kona Grosbeak Crested Honeycreeper Akiapolaau Maui Parrotbill Apapane Unkown finch ancestor Specialist Species of Honeycreepers

9 © Cengage Learning 2015 Predator – feeds directly on all or part of a living organism Carnivores –Pursuit and ambush –Camouflage –Chemical warfare Consumer Species Feed on Other Species

10 © Cengage Learning 2015 Prey can avoid predation –Camouflage –Chemical warfare –Warning coloration –Mimicry –Behavioral strategies Consumer Species Feed on Other Species (cont’d.)

11 Predator-Prey Relationships Fig. 5-4, p. 104

12 © Cengage Learning 2015 Predator-Prey Relationships Fig. 5-6, p. 106

13 © Cengage Learning 2015 Intense natural selection pressures between predator and prey populations Coevolution –Interact over a long period of time –Changes in the gene pool of one species can cause changes in the gene pool of the other –Bats and moths Echolocation of bats and sensitive hearing of moths Interactions between Predator and Prey Species

14 Coevolution Fig. 5-7, p. 107

15 © Cengage Learning 2015 Parasitism –Parasite is usually much smaller than the host –Parasite rarely kills the host –Parasite-host interaction may lead to coevolution Some Species Feed off Other Species by Living on or inside Them

16 Parasitism Fig. 5-8, p. 107

17 © Cengage Learning 2015 Mutualism –Nutrition and protective relationship –Gut inhabitant mutualism –Not cooperation – mutual exploitation In Some Interactions, Both Species Benefit

18 Mutualism Fig. 5-9, p. 108

19 © Cengage Learning 2015 Commensalism –Benefits one species and has little affect on the other –Epiphytes –Birds nesting in trees In Some Interactions, One Species Benefits and the Other Is Not Harmed

20 Commensalism Fig. 5-10, p. 108

21 © Cengage Learning 2015 How do communities and ecosystems respond to changing environmental conditions? –The structure and species composition of communities and ecosystems change in response to changing environmental conditions through a process called ecological succession 5-2 Responding to Changing Environmental Conditions

22 © Cengage Learning 2015 Ecological succession –Gradual change in species composition –Primary succession In lifeless areas –Secondary succession Areas of environmental disturbance –Examples of natural ecological restoration Communities and Ecosystems Change over Time: Ecological Succession

23 Primary Ecological Succession Balsam fir, paper birch, and white spruce forest community Jack pine, black spruce, and aspen Heath mat Small herbs and shrubs Lichens and mosses Exposed rocks Time Fig. 5-11, p. 109

24 Natural Ecological Restoration Mature oak and hickory forest Shrubs and small pine seedlings Young pine forest with developing understory of oak and hickory trees Perennial weeds and grasses Annual weeds Time Fig. 5-12, p. 110

25 © Cengage Learning 2015 Traditional view – Balance of nature and climax communities Current view –Ever-changing mosaic of patches of vegetation in different stages of succession Ecological Succession Does Not Follow a Predictable Path

26 © Cengage Learning 2015 Inertia –Ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances Resilience –Ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a moderate disturbance Living Systems Are Sustained through Constant Change

27 © Cengage Learning 2015 No population can grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources What Limits the Growth of Populations

28 © Cengage Learning 2015 Population –Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species Population distribution –Clumping Species cluster for resources Protection from predators Ability to hunt in packs Most Populations Live in Clumps

29 A School of Anthias Fish Fig. 5-13, p. 111

30 © Cengage Learning 2015 Population size governed by: –Births and deaths; immigration and emigration Population change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) Age structure –Pre-reproductive age –Reproductive age –Post-reproductive age Populations Can Grow, Shrink, or Remain Stable

31 © Cengage Learning 2015 Range of tolerance –Variations in physical and chemical environment –Individuals may have different tolerance ranges Some Factors Can Limit Population Size

32 © Cengage Learning 2015 Limiting factor principle –Too much or too little of any physical or chemical factor can limit or prevent growth of a population, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance –Precipitation, nutrients, sunlight Populations density –Number of individuals in a given area Some Factors Can Limit Population Size

33 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 5-13, p. 113 Lower limit of tolerance Higher limit of tolerance No organisms Few organisms Abundance of organisms Few organisms No organisms Population size Zone of physiological stress Optimum range Zone of physiological stress Zone of intolerance LowTemperatureHigh Zone of intolerance Trout Tolerance of Temperature

34 © Cengage Learning 2015 Some species: –Have many small offspring –Little parental involvement Other species: –Reproduce later in life –Have small number of offspring Different Species Have Different Reproductive Patterns

35 © Cengage Learning 2015 There are always limits to population growth in nature Environmental resistance – factors that limit population growth Carrying capacity –Maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely No Population Can Grow Indefinitely: J-Curves and S-Curves

36 © Cengage Learning 2015 Exponential growth –At a fixed percentage per year Logistic growth –Population faces environmental resistance No Population Can Grow Indefinitely: J-Curves and S-Curves (cont’d.)

37 Fig. 5-16, p Population overshoots carrying capacity Carrying capacity 1.5 Population recovers and stabilizes Number of sheep (millions).5 Exponential growth Population runs out of resources and crashes Year Environmental resistance Growth of a Sheep Population

38 © Cengage Learning – deer habitat destruction and uncontrolled hunting 1920s–1930s – laws to protect the deer Current deer population explosion –Spread Lyme disease –Deer-vehicle accidents –Eating garden plants and shrubs How can we control the deer population? Case Study: Exploding White-Tailed Deer Population in the U.S.

39 White-Tailed Deer Populations Fig. 5-17, p. 115

40 © Cengage Learning 2015 A population exceeds the area’s carrying capacity Reproductive time lag may lead to overshoot –Subsequent population crash Damage may reduce area’s carrying capacity When a Population Exceeds Its Carrying Capacity It Can Crash

41 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 5-18, p ,000 Population overshoots carrying capacity 1,500 Population crashes 1, Carrying capacity Number of reindeer Year Population Crash

42 © Cengage Learning 2015 Ireland –Potato crop in 1845 Bubonic plague –Fourteenth century AIDS –Current global epidemic Humans Are Not Exempt from Nature’s Population Controls

43 © Cengage Learning 2015 Certain interactions among species –Affect their use of resources and their population sizes Changes in environmental conditions –Cause communities and ecosystems to gradually alter their species composition and population sizes (ecological succession) There are always limits to population growth in nature Three Big Ideas

44 © Cengage Learning 2015 Before European settlers in the U.S., the sea otter ecosystem was complex Settlers began hunting otters –Disturbed the balance of the ecosystem Populations depend on solar energy and nutrient cycling –When these are disrupted biodiversity is threatened Tying It All Together – Southern Sea Otters and Sustainability


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