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Chapter 5: Biodiversity, Species Interaction, Population Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Biodiversity, Species Interaction, Population Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5: Biodiversity, Species Interaction, Population Control

2 HOW DO SPECIES INTERACT?

3 Interspecific Competition Members of two or more different species interact to gain access to the same limited resources Niches overlap; the greater the overlap, the more intense the competition No two species can occupy the same niche for very long; Competitive Exclusion Both species may suffer

4 Intraspecific Competition Members of the same species interact to gain access to the same limited resources

5 Predation Predator – prey relationship; 1 species feeds directly on all or part of another species; usually on live species Help sustainability (ex. – kelp-urchin-otter) Carnivores use either ambush or pursuit to capture prey Ambush: camouflage is used; adapted by prey as well

6 Predation Chemical warfare: used by spiders, snakes, to paralyze prey Prey use adaptations such as speed, alert systems (senses), avoidance (ex. – shells), mimicry and scare tactics Role in natural selection: weeding out the weak, aged, sick in a population

7 Predation Coevolution may occur; changes in one species gene pool leads to adaptive changes in another’s

8 Parasitism One species (the parasite) feeds on the body of, or energy used by, another organism Parasite is much smaller than host May weaken but rarely kills host Some live in host (tapeworms) some attach to outside of host (lampreys) Some have little contact with hosts (cowbirds) Coevolution can happen (malaria)

9 Mutualism Interaction that benefits both species by providing food, shelter, or some resource Pollinators Birds that eat parasites off skin of other animals, also act as alarm system Clownfish – anemone Gut-inhabitant species

10 Commensalism Interaction that benefits one species while other is not affected Epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads

11 NATURAL SELECTION REDUCES COMPETITION

12 Resource Partitioning When species competing for similar resources evolve traits that allow them to share resources at different times, ways, or places Examples: warblers and honeycreepers

13 LIMITS OF POPULATION GROWTH

14 Characteristics Populations differ in: Distribution Numbers Density Age structure Population Dynamics studies changes in all the above in response to environmental changes

15 3 Patterns of Distribution Clumping – example; desert vegetation around springs; location & size varies with availability of resources; offers advantages Uniform Distribution Random Distribution

16 Numbers Numbers vary cyclically Population Change = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) Age Structure: proportions of individuals in various age groups – Pre-reproductive – Reproductive – Post-reproductive

17 Indefinite Population Growth? No! Biotic Potential: large animals at a disadvantage; low biotic potential Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r): rate at which population would increase if unlimited resources are available High r value: reproduce early, often, short generation time, produce many offspring Scientific Principles of Sustainability – always limits population growth

18 Environmental Resistance Combination of all factors that limit population growth With biotic potential, it determines the Carrying Capacity (k); the maximum population a habitat can sustain Exponential growth: 1-2% increase; when graphed, produces a “J” curve Logistic Growth: rapid exponential growth followed by a leveling off; when graphed, produces an “S” curve

19 Population Crash No logistic curve is achieved Brought on by a reproductive time lag in rates of births and deaths Die-back occurs Sometimes when a population exceeds k, it causes damages that reduce k (over-grazing in the US)

20 Reproductive Patterns r-selected species: have many offspring, give little or no parental care, are opportunists, susceptible to population crash K-selected species: reproduce later in life, produce small numbers of offspring, matire slowly, longer life spans, parental protection, logistic pattern

21 Genetic Diversity Affects smaller populations: Founder Effect: a population colonizes a new habitat Demographic Bottleneck: few individuals survive a catastrophe Genetic Drift: random changes in gene frequency → unequal reproductive success Inbreeding: increases frequency of defective genes

22 Population Density Number of individuals per unit area or volume Density-Dependent Controls: predation, infectious disease, competition High Density: successful reproduction, leads to increased competition Abiotic Controls are density independent (ex. -

23 Types of Population Change Stable: population fluctuates slightly above and below its carrying capacity Irruptive: occasional population explosion followed by a crash to stable level; algae, insects (summer – winter) Cyclic: follow a top-down or bottom-up regulation Irregular: no recurring pattern

24 Humans not Exempt Irish potato famine Bubonic plague AIDS/HIV

25 ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION

26 Primary Succession A gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in terrestrial ecosystems and no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem Examples: bare rock from glacial retreat, newly cooled lava, parking lot or highway, newly created pond or reservoir Involves a pioneer species

27 Primary Succession Slow process Pioneer species begin soil formation (ex – lichens and mosses) Followed by mid-successional plants (shrubs, grasses, herbs) Late-successional plants (trees)

28 Secondary Succession A series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment Occurs where an ecosystem has been disturbed, removed, or destroyed Include abandoned farmland, burned or cut forests, heavily polluted streams, flooded land

29 Secondary Succession Both types of succession increase biodiversity and thus the sustainability of communities and ecosystems Environmental disturbances can set both processes back Succession does not follow a predictable path

30 Stability in Living Systems Inertia (Persistence): the ability of a living system to survive a moderate disturbance Resilience: the ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a moderate disturbance Ecosystems are one or the other Tipping point comes into play (systems dealing with multiple stresses)


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