2 “John Marshall has made his decision; Jackson v. MarshallFamous words:“John Marshall has made his decision;now let him enforce it”
3 Jackson’s Response Indian Removal Act of 1830 Treaties forced Native Americans to give up their landPressured Indians signed over 90 treatiesHe thought the policy was generousHe saw no chance of assimilation
4 What do you think?...What else could Jackson have done?
5 “The Great Father” with his Native American children
6 Winfield Scott The Enforcer sent to enforce the Indian removal ActBacked by 7000 troopsMost of the troops considered this Indian Removal among the cruelest work they’d ever faced
7 The Trail of TearsSome Cherokee, fearing for their lives, agreed to relocate & signed treatiesUS gov’t treated these few like a majority1838 – Cherokee were relocated to OklahomaFaced an 800+ mile journey mainly on foot1 out of 4 did not make itInteresting point… in 1838, who was in office?(Hint: It wasn’t Jackson)
11 The Horrors of the Trail of Tears Cold, starvation, dysentery, smallpox, cholera, tuberculosis, and road accidents1 in 4 did not survive the journeyAlso subjected to theft, rape, and other brutalities by some of the troops
12 Red Cloud“The Great Father” sends us presents and wants us to sell him the road, but the white chief goes with soldiers to steal the road before the Indians say yes or no!"
14 SO WHAT’S THE POINT? ... things worth remembering SpeciePanic of 1837Van Buren is left to clean up Jackson’s messPresident Harrison dies in office!Whigs regret “His Accidency”, John Tyler“The man without a party”The campaign of 1840, images and slogans“Tippecanoe and Tyler, too”
15 Van Buren, Harrison, & Tyler dealing with Jackson’s legacy
16 VAN BUREN PRESIDENCYJackson would not run for a third term, instead supported VP Van BurenWhigs ran 3 regional candidates against himVan Buren won in 1836 with Jackson’s endorsement
18 VAN BUREN PRESIDENCY Van Buren faces problems with the banks “wildcat” Pet banks lent out more currency than they could back with gold and silvernotes issued were worthless without backingfederal government suffered when worthless notes were used to buy landUS Treasury ordered that only “specie” could buy landSpecie: gold or silverresult: people ran to banks to trade in currency for specie
20 VAN BUREN PRESIDENCYPanic of 1837, bank closings & the collapse of the credit systembanks stopped accepting all paper moneymany lost their savingshundreds of businesses bankruptedmore than 1/3 the population was out of workPresident Van Buren’s efforts to improve the economy after the Panic all failed
21 ELECTION OF 1840Van Buren runs for reelection against Whig Party candidate William Henry HarrisonTippecanoe & Tyler, too!
23 ELECTION OF 1840 Campaigning: The Image: The Truth: Whigs promoted Harrison as a war hero, a man of the people, & Van Buren as a pampered, privileged aristocratThe Truth:in truth, Harrison was born wealthy and lived in a mansion, while Van Buren was the son of a tavern owner who never made much money
25 ELECTION OF 1840 Campaigning (continued) Harrison’s symbols: a log cabin & hard cider, to show that he was a common manHarrison called “Old Tippecanoe” a nod to his achievements in battle
26 ELECTION OF 1840William Henry Harrison WinsTip and Ty What's the cause of this commotion, motion, motion, Our country through? It is the ball a-rolling on For Tippecanoe and Tyler too. For Tippecanoe and Tyler too. And with them we'll beat little Van, Van, Van, Van is a used up man. And with them we'll beat little Van. First verse and chorus
27 HARRISON /TYLER PRESIDENCY Inaugural addressHoped to look like a battle-hardened war hero, Harrison gave a lengthy (8455 words) inaugural address in the rain, on a cold bleary day
28 HARRISON /TYLER PRESIDENCY Harrison in OfficeHarrison Immediately began to enact the Whig program for economic repairquickly caught pneumonia and diedHarrison served less than a month as presidentthe first president ever to die in office
30 HARRISON /TYLER PRESIDENCY John Tyler, VP, took over for HarrisonWhigs chose him for the Harrison ballot because he’d bring the southern voteTyler actually opposed many Whig programscalled “His Accidency,” by the Whigs, because of how he’d become president & how much the Whig party regretted nominating him for VP!Eventually Tyler’s rejected by the Whigs, became “The man without a party”
31 SO WHAT’S THE POINT? ... things worth remembering SpeciePanic of 1837Van Buren is left to clean up Jackson’s messPresident Harrison dies in office!Whigs regret “His Accidency”, John Tyler“The man without a party”The campaign of 1840, images and slogans“Tippecanoe and Tyler, too”