Presentation on theme: "3.2: Puritan New England Objective: Learn the motivations for Puritan migration. Describe the Puritans interactions with the Native Americans. Understand."— Presentation transcript:
3.2: Puritan New England Objective: Learn the motivations for Puritan migration. Describe the Puritans interactions with the Native Americans. Understand the long term influences of Puritan society on American culture today. HW: 2.4
Puritans create New England Puritans want to purify Church of England of Catholicism Puritan Separatists exiled by King James I; they go to Holland 1620, Pilgrims (=Puritan Separatists) leave Holland & found Plymouth Bay Colony under charter from Virginia Company http://www.winthropsociety.org/portraits.php
Puritans create New England In northern colonies, religion, not profit, drives colonization Mayflower Compact- early example moderate self government Myles Standish is their leader. Merged with Mass. Bay Colony in 1691 http://www.winthropsociety.org/portraits.php
Why did Plymouth survive its “starving time” better than Jamestown had? JAMESTOWN’s PROBLEMS PLYMOUTH’S ADVANTAGES
Who was Squanto? How did his presence change the Pilgrim’s experience of the New World?
Partial list of the Passengers of the Elizabeth & Ann mid-May, 1635 PRENAME SURNAME STATUS AGE DATE of record NOTE ROLL # Thomas Hedsall. 47 10 Apr 1635. 1 Margerie Washborn. 49 13 Apr 1635. 2 Jo: Washborn son of Margerie 14 13 Apr 1635. 3 Philip Washborn son of Margerie 11 13 Apr 1635. 4 Robert Hawkynns husbandman 25 13 Apr 1635. 5 Jo: Whitney. 35 13 Apr 1635. 6 Jo: Palmerley. 20 13 Apr 1635. 7 Richard Martin. 12 13 Apr 1635. 8 Jo: Whitney. 11 13 Apr 1635. 9 Richard Whitney. 9 13 Apr 1635. 10 Nathaniel Whitney. 8 13 Apr 1635. 11 Thomas Whitney. 6 13 Apr 1635. 12 Jonathan Whitney. 1 13 Apr 1635. 13 Nicholas Sension. 13 13 Apr 1635. 14 Henry Jackson. 29 13 Apr 1635. 15 William Hubbard. 35 13 Apr 1635. 16 Thomas Hubbard. 10 13 Apr 1635. 17 Thomas Eaton. 1 13 Apr 1635. 18 Mary Hawkynns 24 13 Apr 1635. 19 Ellen Whitney. 30 13 Apr 1635. 20 http://www.winthropsociety.org/ships.php#passname
Massachusetts Bay Colony Founded in1630, as a “city on a hill” Led by John Winthrop, Governor of colony Established an independent government for the colony A Very large and well-stocked expedition Was very successful & encouraged a “Great Migration” of Puritans from England 20,000 migrated between 1630 and 1640 http://www.winthropsociety.org/portraits.php
How are Puritans and Pilgrims different in their religious beliefs?
Excerpt: “A Model of Christian Charity” By Governor John Winthrop, 1630 For this end, we must be knit together, in this work, as one man. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection. … We must delight in each other; make others’ conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. … We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when He shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, "may the Lord make it like that of New England." For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world.
The New England Way The church congregation was definition of Puritan identity The “meetinghouse” was the most important building in a town All “freemen” could vote – very democratic at the time BUT only male church members could be “freemen” Church and state were closely linked
The New England Way Protestant work ethic = God rewards his elect for their had work and faith Taxes supported the church Laws punished both criminal and undesirable act such as idleness and drunkenness = “Blue Laws” Little concept of privacy – Church and State could punish parents for poor parenting, marital problems, etc. School was mandatory. Why?
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut In 1639 Thomas Hooker established a new Puritan colony. The laws of the new colony were the “Fundamental Orders” They expanded democracy by –Giving non-church members voting rights –Limiting the power of the governor
Dissent in the Puritan Community Roger Williams Opposed mandatory religious attendance Critical of Puritan treatment of Native Americans Forced to flee Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. Befriended by Native Am and settled in Narragansett Bay Founded Rhode Island – community based on religious tolerance. http://www.greatwomen.org/women.php?action=viewone&id=84 http://www.rogerwilliams.org/biography.htm
Dissent in the Puritan Community Anne Hutchinson Believed a person could worship directly through the Bible, no minister needed Challenged religious authorities exiled in 1638 In 1643 she and her family were killed in a war fought between the Dutch colonists and N. Americans She is seen as the beginning of the American tradition of Freedom of Conscience. http://www.greatwomen.org/women.php?action=viewone&id=84 http://www.rogerwilliams.org/biography.htm
Quakers Believed everyone shared equally in God’s “inner light” Anyone could preach Treated women, men, Native Americans equally Bible not necessary Pacifists - Didn’t serve in the military Did not obey Puritan authorities Puritan authorities punished them with whippings, prison and public hangings. Many left for the new colony of Rhode Island
Conflict with Native Americans: King Philip’s War Original co-existence with Native Americans declines Expansion of Puritan colony leads to conflict Metacom, aka King Philip, resists expansion King Philip’s War, 1675 Wampanoag tribe is destroyed, Metacom killed This was the last Native American resistance in Puritan colonies Conflict is denounced by Roger Williams
Causes and Effects of King Philip’s War (use p. 96)
Salem Witch Trials Began in 1692 when young girls accuse people of “bewitching” them Why did people believe them? May have been result of tension with Native Americans, economic stress within the town, and declining church membership Seen by town authorities as a “trial” from God to purify the town and bring people back to church Over 100 arrested; 20 were put to death