2SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Social psychologistsStudy how social roles, attitudes, relationships, and groups influence people to do things they would not necessarily do on their own.Cultural psychologistsStudy the origins of roles, attitudes, and group norms in people’s ethnic, regional, and national communities.
3Roles and Rules Norms Roles Rules about how people are supposed to act.RolesPositions in society that are regulated by norms about how people in those positions should behave.
4Milgram’s Obedience Study MethodSubjects thought they were in an experiment about the effect of punishment on learning, and were instructed to give increasing levels of shock to another subject every time an error was made.No one received shocks, but the subjects did not know this.
5Milgram’s Obedience Study ResultsEvery subject administered at least one shock to the learner.Two-thirds obeyed the experimenter and gave all the levels of shock, even though they thought the victim was in pain.Many subjects were visibly upset by being asked to administer shocks, but continued anyway.
6Milgram’s Obedience Study Subsequent studies examined conditions for disobedience.Nothing the victim said or did decreased the subjects’ compliance.Participants were more likely to disobey orders when:The experimenter left the room.The victim was in the room with the subject, and the subject had to administer the shock directly to the victim.Two experimenters issued conflicting demands.An ordinary person, not an authority figure, issued commands.The participant worked with peers who refused to go further.
7Milgram’s Obedience Study ConclusionsObedience is a function of the situation, not of personality.The nature of the relationship to authority influences obedience.
8Stanford Prison Study (Zimbardo) MethodCollege students were randomly assigned to the roles of prisoners or guards.No further instructions were given on how to behave.ResultsSome “prisoners” quickly became distressed, helpless, and panicky; others became rebellious and angry.Half of the prisoners begged to be let out of the study after a few day.Guards acted like guards; one-third became tyrannical.Guards seemed to enjoy their roles.Researchers terminated the study early, because they had not expected such a quick transformation from college student to prisoner or guard.ConclusionsResearchers say people’s behavior depends in part on their roles.Situations can outweigh personality.
9Why People ObeyIn both studies subjects’ behaviors depended on their assigned roles.Factors that cause people to obey when they would rather not:Legitimization of authorityallows people to feel absolved of responsibility for their actionsRoutinizationbehavior becomes normalizeWanting to be politepeople do not want to rock the boat or appear rudeEntrapmentobedience escalates through a commitment to a course of action
10SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON BELIEFS Social CognitionArea in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and other cognitive processes.
11Attributions Attribution theory Situational attributions Theory that people are motivated to explain their own and others’ behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition.Situational attributionsIdentify the cause of an action as something in the environment.Dispositional attributionsIdentify the cause of an action as something in the person, such as a trait or motive.Fundamental attribution errorTendency to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation when explaining someone else’s behavior.More prevalent in Western cultures.
12Attributions Self-serving bias Just-world hypothesis When explaining one’s own behavior, people take credit for good actions and attribute the bad ones to the situation.Just-world hypothesisPeople have a need to believe the world is fair and that good people are rewarded and bad people are punished.This can lead to blaming the victim.Most human actions are determined by both the situation and personality.
13AttitudesRelatively stable opinions containing a cognitive element and an emotional element.Affected by many social and environmental influences:Some arise from the characteristic attitudes of each generation.Events that occur when a person is between the ages of 16 to 24 appear to be critical for the formation of generational identity.Attitudes and behavior can affect each other.
14Cognitive DissonanceUncomfortable feeling that occurs when two attitudes or an attitude and behavior are in conflict.To resolve the dissonance most people will change one of the attitudes.Usually people restore cognitive consistency by dismissing evidence that might otherwise throw their fundamental beliefs into question.
15Persuasion A form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or behavior by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means.It is strategy of problem-solving relying on "appeals" rather than strength.
16Friendly PersuasionRepetition of information increases the likelihood it will be believed--called the validity effectExposure to an argument from an attractive person is also persuasive.Pairing a message with something pleasant also increases persuasion.FearOften causes people to resist arguments that are in their own best interest.May aid persuasion if the information produces moderate anxiety levels and if message provides information on how to avoid the danger.
17Coercive Persuasion (brainwashing) Involves the following processesThe person is put under physical or emotional distress.The person’s problems are defined in simplistic terms and simple answers are offered repeatedly.The leader offers unconditional love, acceptance, and attention.A new identity based on the group is created.The person is subjected to entrapment.The person’s access to information is severely controlled.
18INDIVIDUALS IN GROUPS Conformity Asch’s conformity study Taking action or adopting attitudes as a result of real or imagined pressuresAsch’s conformity studyJudgment of line length--showed that many people will conform to incorrect judgments.Influences on conformity:Prevailing social normsCultureConformity increases when:Others are people like usNumber of people who disagree with the subject increases.
19GroupthinkThe tendency for all members of the group to think alike and suppress dissent.Occurs when the need for agreement overwhelms the need for the wisest decision.Symptoms of groupthink:Illusion of invulnerabilitySelf-censorshipDirect pressure on dissenters to conformThere is an illusion of unanimity
20Groupthink is less likely when Conditions explicitly encourage and reward the expression of doubt and dissent.Group’s decision is based on majority rule rather than demand for unanimity.
21The Anonymous Crowd Diffusion of responsibility Tendency of individuals to fail to take action because they believe someone else will do so.Bystander apathy reflects diffusion of responsibility.
22Social Loafing Diffusion of responsibility in work groups Individuals slow down and let others work harder.Does not happen in all groups.Increases:When members are not accountable for their workWhen working harder duplicates effortsWhen the work is uninterestingDeclines:With challenging workWhen each member has a different job
23DeindividuationLosing all awareness of individuality and sense of self.Increases under anonymous conditions.In anonymous situations, people are more likely to conform to the norms of the situation.
24Altruism and Dissent Altruism Willingness to take selfless/dangerous action on behalf of others.Factors that predict independent action and altruismThe individual perceives the need for intervention or help.The individual decides to take responsibility.The individual decides that the costs of doing nothing outweigh the costs of getting involved.The individual has an ally; the presence of another dissenter increases the likelihood of dissent.The individual becomes entrapped; once initial steps have been taken, most people will increase their commitment.
25GROUP IDENTITY Personal identity Social identities Ethnic identity A sense of self that is based on our own unique traits and history.Social identitiesAspects of our self-concepts that are based on nationality, ethnicity, religion, and social roles.Ethnic identityA person’s identification with a racial or ethnic group.Many people face a dilemma of balancing ethnic identity (close affiliation with a religious or ethnic group) with acculturation (identifying with and feeling part of the dominant culture).
26Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Biculturalism/IntegrationMaintain ethnic identity & incorporate majority culture.AssimilationRelinquish ethnic identity and adopt majority culture.Ethnic Separatism/UnassimilationStrong ethnic identity, weak acculturation.Withdrawal from majority cultures.Sometimes due to segregation.forced separation by large societyMarginalizedLack of identification with booth ethnic and/or majority culture.
27EthnocentrismThe belief that one’s own culture or ethnic group is superior.Generates “us-them” thinking
28StereotypesSummary impression of a group in which all members of that group are viewed as sharing a common trait or traits.They help us quickly process new information, retrieve memories, and organize experience.Stereotypes lead to distortions of reality in three ways:They accentuate differences between groups.They produce selective perception.They underestimate differences within other groups.
29PREJUDICEConsists of negative stereotype/s of a group and a strong emotional dislike of its members.
30Common Prejudices Racism Ethnocentrism Ageism Heterosexism Classism ElitismAbleismAnti-SemitismAnd many other
31ChauvinismExtreme and unreasonable partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes hatred towards a rival group.A frequent contemporary use of the term is male chauvinism, which refers to the belief that men are superior to women.
32Homophobia Xenophobia Irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality.XenophobiaIrrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against foreigners or of people significantly different from oneself.
33Origins of Prejudice Psychological Functions Serve to ward off feelings of doubt, fear, and insecurity.Prejudice is a “tonic” for low self-esteem.Allow people to use target group as scapegoat.Social and cultural functionsSocial pressure to conform.Passed from generation to generation.Media influence.People use it to bond with others.Economic functionsJustification of majority group in times of job competition.
34Reducing Conflict and Prejudice Both sides have equal status and economic standing.Both sides have opportunities to work and socialize together, formally and informally.Both sides have the moral, legal, and economic support of the authorities.Both sides cooperate in working toward a common goal.
35THE QUESTION OF HUMAN NATURE Bad people do bad things, but good people (in certain circumstances) also do bad things.The person in the situation…the eternal dialogue.“I am the circumstance” (José Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher ( ).