Presentation on theme: "Behavior in social and cultural context"— Presentation transcript:
1 Behavior in social and cultural context 8Behavior in social and cultural context
2 8 Overview Roles and rules Social influences on beliefs Individuals in groupsGroup identityGroup conflict and prejudice
3 8 Definitions Norms Role Culture Rules that regulate human life, including social conventions, explicit laws, and implicit cultural standardsRoleA given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behaviorCultureA program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
4 8 Your turn 1. 50 volts 2. 100 volts 3. 200 volts 4. 300 volts As part of an experiment on learning, you are told to administer an electric shock to another participant every time that participant misremembers a series of words. As the experiment proceeds, the amount of electricity you are administering rises. You started at 15 volts, but the switchboard goes up to How far would you go before you refused to continue?1. 50 voltsvoltsvoltsvolts
5 8The obedience studyStanley Milgram and coworkers investigated whether people would follow orders, even when the order violated their ethical standards.Most people were far more obedient than anyone expected.Every single participant complied with at least some orders to shock another person.Two-thirds shocked the learner to the full extent.Results are controversial and have generated further research on violence and obedience.
6 Factors leading to disobedience 8Factors leading to disobedienceWhen the experimenter left the roomWhen the “learner” was in the same roomWhen the experimenter issued conflicting ordersWhen the person ordering them to continue was an ordinary manWhen the subject worked with peers who refused to go on
7 8The prison studySubjects were physically and mentally healthy young men who volunteered to participate for money.They were randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards.Those assigned the role of prisoner became distressed, helpless, and panicky.Those assigned the role of guards became either nice, “tough but fair,” or tyrannical.Study had to be ended after six days.
8 8 Factors in obedience Allocating responsibility to the authority Routinizing the taskWanting to be politeBecoming entrappedEntrapment: a process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort
9 8Social cognitionAn area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and other cognitive processes.Researchers are interested in how people’s perceptions of themselves and others affect. . .RelationshipsThoughtsBeliefsValues
10 8 Attributions Attribution theory Fundamental attribution error Theory that people are motivated to explain own and others’ behavior by attributing causes of behavior to situation or dispositionFundamental attribution errorTendency to overestimate personality factors and underestimate situational influence
11 8 Attributions Self-serving bias Just-world hypothesis Tendency to take credit for one’s good actions but to rationalize one’s mistakesJust-world hypothesisMany people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served.Bad people are punished and good people rewarded.
12 8Your turnYour roommate studies hard for the psychology test, but does not do very well. After receiving the results, she says “It really wasn’t a fair test.” What sort of bias is reflected in this attribution?1. Fundamental attribution error2. Self-serving bias3. Just world hypothesis
13 8Your turnYour roommate studies hard for the psychology test, but does not do very well. After receiving the results, she says “It really wasn’t a fair test.” What sort of bias is reflected in this attribution?1. Fundamental attribution error2. Self-serving bias3. Just world hypothesis
14 8AttitudesA relatively stable opinion containing beliefs and emotional feelings about a topic.Explicit: we are aware of them, they shape conscious decisionsImplicit: we are unaware of them, they influence our behavior in ways we do not recognize
15 Factors influencing attitude change 8Factors influencing attitude changeChange in social environmentChange in behaviorsNeed for consistencyCognitive dissonance: a state of tension that develops when a person simultaneously holds two contradictory cognitions or when a person’s belief is incongruent with his/her behavior
17 8 Coercive persuasion Person is under physical or emotional duress. Person’s problems are reduced to one simple explanation, repeated often.Leader offers unconditional love, acceptance, and attention.New identity based on group is created.Person is entrapped.Person’s access to information is controlled.
18 8 Conformity Subjects in group asked to match line lengths. Confederates picked wrong line.Subjects went with wrong answer in 37% of trials.Conformity has decreased since 1950, possibly due to changing norms.Individualistic vs. collectivist cultures
19 8GroupthinkIn close-knit groups, the tendency for all members to think alike and suppress disagreement for the sake of harmony.SymptomsIllusion of invincibilitySelf-censorshipPressure on dissenters to conformIllusion of unanimityCounteracted byCreating conditions that reward dissentBasing decision on majority rule
20 8 The anonymous crowd Diffusion of responsibility Bystander apathy The tendency of group members to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions because they assume others will do so.Bystander apathyPeople fail to call for help when others are near.Social loafingWhen people work less in the presence of others, forcing others to work harder
21 8DeindividuationIn groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one’s own individuality.FactorsSize of city, groupUniforms or masksCan influence either unlawful or prosocial behaviorsDepends on norms of specific situation
22 Disobedience and dissent 8Disobedience and dissentSituational factors in nonconformityYou perceive the need for intervention or help.Situation makes it more likely you will take responsibility.Cultural norms encourage you to take action.Cost-benefit ration supports decision to get involved.You have an ally.You become entrapped.
23 8 Group identity Social identity The part of a person’s self-concept based on identification with a nation, culture, or group, or with gender or other social rolesUs vs. them social identities strengthened when groups compete.Robber’s cave studies
24 8EthnocentrismThe belief that one’s own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others.Aids survival by making people feel attached to their own group and willing to work on group’s behalf.
25 8 Robber’s cave Boys randomly separated into two groups Rattlers and EaglesCompetitions fostered hostility between groups.Experimenters contrived situations requiring cooperation for success.Result: cross-group friendships increased.
26 8StereotypesCognitive schemas of a group, in which a person believes that all members of a group share common traitsTraits may be positive, negative, or neutral.Allow us to process quickly new information and retrieve memoriesDistort realityExaggerate differences between groupsProduce selective perceptionUnderestimate differences within groups
27 8 Origins of prejudice Psychological functions People inflate own self-worth by disliking groups they see as inferiorSocial and cultural functionsBy disliking others we feel closer to others who are like us.Economic functionsLegitimizes unequal economic treatment
28 8 Measuring prejudice Not all people are prejudiced in the same way. People know they shouldn’t be prejudiced so measures of prejudice have declined.Explicit vs. implicit prejudice
29 Measures of explicit prejudice 8Measures of explicit prejudice
30 Defining and measuring prejudice 8Defining and measuring prejudiceMeasuring implicit prejudiceMeasures of symbolic racismMeasures of behaviors rather than attitudesMeasures of unconscious associations with a target group
31 8Reducing prejudiceGroups must have equal legal status, economic opportunities, and power.Authorities and institutions must endorse egalitarian norms and provide moral support for all groups.Groups must have opportunities to work and socialize together, both formally and informally.Groups must work together for common goal.