Presentation on theme: "My memories of Berlin 1963 to 1966"— Presentation transcript:
1My memories of Berlin 1963 to 1966 ‘The Potsdam Agreement’ divided GERMANY into four zones of occupationBritish, French, American, and RussianBERLINBERLIN (The Divided City) was in the Russian zone and the City of Berlin was divided into four sectors.After the Berlin Wall was built the City was divided again into Communist East, and Free West Berlin.
2Company F 40th Armor was the only American Armor unit located 110 miles behind the iron curtain, inside of Soviet occupied East Germany,and surrounded by 17 divisions of Russian troopsWest Berlin was truly in a awkward position, surrounded by hostileEast Germany, The Russian army, and held hostage by the newly built Berlin Wall
3Company F 40th Armor Berlin Brigade Turner Barracks Co”F” 40th Armor was located in West Berlin in the borough of Zehlendorf.It was a oversized tank company with 32 tanks
4LichterfeldeThe Berlin Wall stretched over a hundred miles. It ran not only through the center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin, entirely cutting West Berlin off from the rest of East Germany.
5West Berlin was an island of freedom within Communist East Germany LichterfeldeWest Berlin was an island of freedom within Communist East Germany
6“Have Guns Will Travel” That freedom was guaranteedby the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and theFrench and British allies
7Potsdamer Platz 1963Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev referred to Berlin as "the testicles of the west vulnerable to his iron grip”
8“When I want the West to scream, I squeeze on Berlin" Potsdamer Platz 1963“When I want the West to scream, I squeeze on Berlin"
9Was the first “cold war” mayor of West Berlin Ernst ReuterWas the first “cold war” mayor of West Berlin“People of this world … look upon this city and see that you should not, and cannot abandon this city and this people!“ ~ Ernst Reuter
10"Nobody intends to put up a wall” ~ Walter Ulbricht Walter Ulbricht was the Leader of the GDR,The German Democratic Republic (East Germany)He said the above quote two months before the Berlin Wall was built
11Walled up Versöhnungskirche (Church of Reconciliation) The Church was in the Death Zone and demolished by the GDRBernauer Strasse became especially symbolic of the inhumanity of the Berlin Wall.People attempted escapes through upper floor windows. Pictures of these escape attempts were seen around the world
12East German guard shack The GDR border guards shot and killed Top centerThe GDR border guards shot and killedmore than 600 East Berliners trying to escape to the west
13East German guard. He would not look at the camera The population of Berlin was understandably scared
14Looking east, across the wall and barbed wire Well over 100,000 citizens of the GDR tried to escape across the Berlin Wall
15Sign in the west, facing so the east German border guards could see it The division is inhuman.The Shooting orders are criminal
16LichterfeldeBerlin Mayor Willy Brandt appealed to American president John F. Kennedy to make a morale-boosting visit.
17“Checkpoint Charlie” The symbol of the Cold War President Kennedy came to Berlin and deliveredone of the most famous speeches of the 20th century
18All -- All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin. And, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words"Ich bin ein Berliner.“Picture from the internetOn June 26, 1963, in a speech before 200,000 citizens of Berlin, President John F. Kennedy declared “Ich bin ein Berliner,” meaning, “I am a Berliner.”
19American Flag at half-staff for President Kennedy's assassination "We will never have another day like this as long as we live," said Kennedy as his plane lifted off from Tegel airport. He died just a few months laterAmerican Flag at half-staff for President Kennedy's assassinationAnybody that was in Berlin that day will remember the cannons going off at (BB) Berlin Brigade headquarters on Clayallee.The cannons went off every hour it seemed for weeks. And the genuine love the Berliners had for president Kennedy. Everything closed down. Stores had pictures of Kennedy draped in black in the windows.It was a sad time for everyone
20LichterfeldeOnly a few thousand American, British and French troops stood in the way of complete Russian domination of West Berlin
21Motor Pool - American Flag I asked a German friend, what the best thing was about Berlin .The reply “the American flag at the Panzer Kaserne”
22Company F 40th Armor Berlin Brigade Turner BarracksWe were a tripwire for World War III, but what a great tripwire we were. If an invasion had ever occurred we would have inevitably lost, but the price that the enemy would have paid to take Berlin would have crippled them ~ posted on the Berlin Tankers web group 21 August 2005
23August Santini Conrad Schornhorst The following pictures are just a few from my time.Thousands of soldiers served at Turner Barracks from 1951 to 1990.August SantiniConrad Schornhorst
24Note: Everyone has a hand on a beer Roberts, Schleupner, Pauley, Thompson, Henderson, FitzpatrickNote: Everyone has a hand on a beer
25August SantiniIsaac W. SeayJohn TavaresConrad Schornhorst (Flag)Arnold Perry
39Marc Cowe was 17 when he arrived in Berlin. He left Berlin in 1966 and went on to distinguish himself in Vietnamalong with many others from Turner BarracksWhen He left the servicehe was disabledMarc took his own lifewith a single shot inApril 1997When a free nation sends men and woman to war their sacrifice must be honored and rewarded.These people deserve our thanks, respect, support and more importantly a place in our memories. - Oliver NorthMarc A Cowe
40 Command Sergeant Major Kent Vickers Vietnam BerlinKent Vickers was a First Sergeant in Vietnam2nd Squadron,17th Cavalry, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)
41Korea, Berlin, received a Purple heart in Vietnam Sergeant Bill MoyerKorea, Berlin, received a Purple heart in VietnamBill Moyer
42Command Sergeant Major Jerry Sodosky U.S. Army 1961 to 1988, Vietnam Veteran, Two tours in Berlin ( and )Served over 20 years overseas duty, Highest Award: Legion of Merit
49slang: a tavern frequented by military men This was our ‘Slop Chute’ a small room in the basement of Turner Barracksslop chute nounslang: a tavern frequented by military men
50Brandenburg Gate Winter 1964 Picture from Ray Guidry“The Brandenburger Tor” is a monumental gate built in the 18th century as a symbol of peace.During the Cold War the gate became the sad symbol for the division of Berlin and Germany.
51The Reichstag 1963This is where it all started in After the Reichstag fire, the Enabling Act was passed by Germany's parliament. Hitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg. Germany and the world was turned upside down until the Berlin Wall came down 56years later in 1989
52Spandau PrisonAlbert Speer and Baldur von Schirach were released in 1965Rudolf Hess was the top Nazi and the only remaining prisoner.After Hess' death, On August 17, 1987 Spandau Prison wasdemolished to prevent it from becoming a Nazi shrine
53Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche was badly damaged in a bombing raid in 1943.“The Stalingrad Madonna” made by a German soldier in 1942 at the siege of Stalingrad hangs in the Church
54Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche was badly damaged in a bombing raid in 1943.“The Stalingrad Madonna” made by a German soldier in 1942 at the siege of Stalingrad hangs in the Church
55What’s left of Hitler's Bunker, In no man's land
56American soldiers Going through Checkpoint Charlie after a tour “Checkpoint Charlie” The symbol of the Cold WarAmerican soldiers Going through Checkpoint Charlie after a tourof the east
58Soviet Russia's war memorial in West Berlin RussianGuards in West BerlinThroughout the Cold War, Soviet Guards were present at the memorial.The monument was in the British Sector and seen as a sign of communist provocation on West Berlin soil. British soldiers had to protect the Russian Guards from the West Berliners.
59Stephanie's Bar Charlottenburg, Kantstraße 75 2009 Picturefrom Reinhard Bronewski“Stephanie’s” today is a eye doctors office (Dr. med. Uwe Kraffel Augenarzt).Dr. Kraffel could never guess what went on in his office 50 years ago
60and American Movies - On the Kudam Mix of Germanand American Movies - On the Kudam
61“How the West Was Won” (1962) Movies“How the West Was Won” (1962)
70Looking through binoculars. Tanks at the Brandenburg Gatewith the elevated 50 calvisible on each tank32 Tanks
71“The Garden of Remembrance” East Berlin“The Garden of Remembrance”Soviet Russia's tribute to those of its soldiers who died in the siege of Berlin.In five sections are the bodies of 2,000 Soviet soldiers who died in the battle for the city
72East Berlin “The Garden of Remembrance” This is a cemetery, and there were no crosses.Nor any other symbol to indicate that these dead had a religious faith
73Grafenwöhr is located in beautiful Bavaria, near Nuremberg. Some American tankers might think of it as Strafen-woehr, a play on words "Punish-Woehr"
74Every year each platoon went to Graf for Tank Gunnery GrafenwöhrEvery year each platoon went to Graf for Tank Gunnery
75They still looked pretty formidable to me GrafenwöhrWest German SoldiersThey told me the German Army of today is not the same as it once was. They can wear long hair now.They still looked pretty formidable to me
84We didn’t get much sleep, I wore the same clothes for two weeks Socks standingby themselvesWe didn’t get much sleep, I wore the same clothes for two weeks
85One year we slept in a nice warm barrack with a wood burning stove GrafenwöhrOne year we slept in a nice warm barrack with a wood burning stove
86Grafenwöhr1965 or 66?Berlin Tank crews1-11-21-31-41-5
87Grafenwöhr Allen J Peterson James Vogel M4 Sherman Tank
88Joe Benolken Grafenwöhr Allen J Peterson Richard E Gallina Daniel GallagherLandis PerryJoe BenolkenGervis RamseyAfter two weeks in Graf!Recently after seeing this picture Sgt Vickers said we looked worse than the Iraqi army
100November 2001, Elizabeth Town, Kentucky Old 40th Armor WarriorsNovember 2001, Elizabeth Town, Kentucky
101I was with. I’m very grateful for that opportunity. Being in the United States Army and in Berlin at that time and place in history changed my life in many ways. I will always remember those times and the peopleI was with. I’m very grateful for that opportunity.James Vogel63 to 66