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‘The Potsdam Agreement’ divided GERMANY into four zones of occupation British, French, American, and Russian My memories of Berlin 1963 to 1966 BERLIN.

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Presentation on theme: "‘The Potsdam Agreement’ divided GERMANY into four zones of occupation British, French, American, and Russian My memories of Berlin 1963 to 1966 BERLIN."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ‘The Potsdam Agreement’ divided GERMANY into four zones of occupation British, French, American, and Russian My memories of Berlin 1963 to 1966 BERLIN (The Divided City) was in the Russian zone and the City of Berlin was divided into four sectors. After the Berlin Wall was built the City was divided again into Communist East, and Free West Berlin. BERLIN

3 Company F 40th Armor was the only American Armor unit located 110 miles behind the iron curtain, inside of Soviet occupied East Germany, and surrounded by 17 divisions of Russian troops West Berlin was truly in a awkward position, surrounded by hostile East Germany, The Russian army, and held hostage by the newly built Berlin Wall

4 Company F 40th Armor Berlin Brigade Turner Barracks Co”F” 40 th Armor was located in West Berlin in the borough of Zehlendorf. It was a oversized tank company with 32 tanks

5 Lichterfelde The Berlin Wall stretched over a hundred miles. It ran not only through the center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin, entirely cutting West Berlin off from the rest of East Germany.

6 Lichterfelde West Berlin was an island of freedom within Communist East Germany

7 “Have Guns Will Travel” That freedom was guaranteed by the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and the French and British allies

8 Potsdamer Platz 1963 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev referred to Berlin as "the testicles of the west vulnerable to his iron grip”

9 Potsdamer Platz 1963 “When I want the West to scream, I squeeze on Berlin"

10 Ernst Reuter Was the first “cold war” mayor of West Berlin “People of this world … look upon this city and see that you should not, and cannot abandon this city and this people!“ ~ Ernst Reuter

11 "Nobody intends to put up a wall” ~ Walter Ulbricht Walter Ulbricht was the Leader of the GDR, The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) He said the above quote two months before the Berlin Wall was built

12 Walled up Versöhnungskirche (Church of Reconciliation) The Church was in the Death Zone and demolished by the GDR Bernauer Strasse became especially symbolic of the inhumanity of the Berlin Wall. People attempted escapes through upper floor windows. Pictures of these escape attempts were seen around the world

13 East German guard shack Top center The GDR border guards shot and killed more than 600 East Berliners trying to escape to the west

14 East German guard. He would not look at the camera The population of Berlin was understandably scared

15 Looking east, across the wall and barbed wire Well over 100,000 citizens of the GDR tried to escape across the Berlin Wall

16 Sign in the west, facing so the east German border guards could see it The division is inhuman. The Shooting orders are criminal

17 Lichterfelde Berlin Mayor Willy Brandt appealed to American president John F. Kennedy to make a morale-boosting visit.

18 President Kennedy came to Berlin and delivered one of the most famous speeches of the 20th century “Checkpoint Charlie” The symbol of the Cold War

19 All -- All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin. And, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner.“ On June 26, 1963, in a speech before 200,000 citizens of Berlin, President John F. Kennedy declared “Ich bin ein Berliner,” meaning, “I am a Berliner.” Picture from the internet

20 American Flag at half-staff for President Kennedy's assassination "We will never have another day like this as long as we live," said Kennedy as his plane lifted off from Tegel airport. He died just a few months later Anybody that was in Berlin that day will remember the cannons going off at (BB) Berlin Brigade headquarters on Clayallee. The cannons went off every hour it seemed for weeks. And the genuine love the Berliners had for president Kennedy. Everything closed down. Stores had pictures of Kennedy draped in black in the windows. It was a sad time for everyone

21 Lichterfelde Only a few thousand American, British and French troops stood in the way of complete Russian domination of West Berlin

22 Motor Pool - American Flag I asked a German friend, what the best thing was about Berlin. The reply “the American flag at the Panzer Kaserne”

23 We were a tripwire for World War III, but what a great tripwire we were. If an invasion had ever occurred we would have inevitably lost, but the price that the enemy would have paid to take Berlin would have crippled them ~ posted on the Berlin Tankers web group 21 August 2005 Company F 40th Armor Berlin Brigade Turner Barracks

24 Conrad SchornhorstAugust Santini The following pictures are just a few from my time. Thousands of soldiers served at Turner Barracks from 1951 to 1990.

25 Roberts, Schleupner, Pauley, Thompson, Henderson, Fitzpatrick Note: Everyone has a hand on a beer

26 Conrad Schornhorst (Flag)Arnold Perry John Tavares Isaac W. Seay August Santini

27 Toledo Rivera Grafenwöhr

28 Ronald L Newlin

29 Santos Gamino

30 Leslie T CasonJames F Vogel

31 William HatcherRay Guidry James Vogel

32 HatcherMayer

33 Newlin Grobaker Trznadel Ramsey Irzarry Short Perry

34 GrobakerTrznadelNewlinHoffman Perry RamseyDavis

35 Ronald L NewlinJohn Trznadel

36 Bill Knock Gordon Iles Bill Harbin

37 Grafenwöhr DunhamFugate

38 Elmore NewtonRoland Brown

39 Irzarry

40 Marc Cowe was 17 when he arrived in Berlin. He left Berlin in 1966 and went on to distinguish himself in Vietnam along with many others from Turner Barracks Marc A Cowe When a free nation sends men and woman to war their sacrifice must be honored and rewarded. These people deserve our thanks, respect, support and more importantly a place in our memories. - Oliver North When He left the service he was disabled Marc took his own life with a single shot in April 1997

41 Kent Vickers was a First Sergeant in Vietnam 2 nd Squadron,17 th Cavalry, 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Command Sergeant Major Kent Vickers Vietnam Berlin

42 Bill Moyer Sergeant Bill Moyer Korea, Berlin, received a Purple heart in Vietnam

43 Command Sergeant Major Jerry Sodosky U.S. Army 1961 to 1988, Vietnam Veteran, Two tours in Berlin ( and ) Served over 20 years overseas duty, Highest Award: Legion of Merit

44 Jerry Sodosky Command Sergeant Major

45 Ramsey did 3 tours in Vietnam Rick Ramsey

46 Tank 15 Aggressor forces in the Grunwald Stuart Short 1 st sergeant, Vietnam Veteran

47 Stuart Short Berliner Kindl & Currywurst Not far from the U-Bahn station Oskar-Helene-Heim

48 Ed Sullivan at Co F 40 th Armor Picture from Conrad Schornhorst Here’s a few more random pictures

49 Company Tailor

50 This was our ‘Slop Chute’ a small room in the basement of Turner Barracks slop chute noun slang: a tavern frequented by military men

51 Picture from Ray Guidry Winter 1964 Brandenburg Gate “The Brandenburger Tor” is a monumental gate built in the 18th century as a symbol of peace. During the Cold War the gate became the sad symbol for the division of Berlin and Germany.

52 The Reichstag 1963 This is where it all started in After the Reichstag fire, the Enabling Act was passed by Germany's parliament. Hitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg. Germany and the world was turned upside down until the Berlin Wall came down 56years later in 1989

53 Albert Speer and Baldur von Schirach were released in 1965 Rudolf Hess was the top Nazi and the only remaining prisoner. After Hess' death, On August 17, 1987 Spandau Prison was demolished to prevent it from becoming a Nazi shrine Spandau Prison

54 Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche was badly damaged in a bombing raid in “The Stalingrad Madonna” made by a German soldier in 1942 at the siege of Stalingrad hangs in the Church

55 Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche was badly damaged in a bombing raid in “The Stalingrad Madonna” made by a German soldier in 1942 at the siege of Stalingrad hangs in the Church

56 What’s left of Hitler's Bunker, In no man's land

57 American soldiers Going through Checkpoint Charlie after a tour of the east “Checkpoint Charlie” The symbol of the Cold War

58 “Checkpoint Charlie”

59 Soviet Russia's war memorial in West Berlin Russian Guards in West Berlin Throughout the Cold War, Soviet Guards were present at the memorial. The monument was in the British Sector and seen as a sign of communist provocation on West Berlin soil. British soldiers had to protect the Russian Guards from the West Berliners.

60 2009 Picture from Reinhard Bronewski Stephanie's Bar Charlottenburg, Kantstraße 75 “Stephanie’s” today is a eye doctors office (Dr. med. Uwe Kraffel Augenarzt). Dr. Kraffel could never guess what went on in his office 50 years ago

61 Mix of German and American Movies - On the Kudam Movies

62 “How the West Was Won” (1962) Movies

63 “Send Me No Flowers” (1964) Movies

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65 American Tanks On the streets of Berlin Tank #1 Major Hains and Roland Brown

66 American Tanks On the streets of Berlin Tank 14 TC- Paul Welch, GR- John Davis, DR- Ray Guidry, LD- Marc Cowe

67 American Tanks On the streets of Berlin

68 American Tanks On the streets of Berlin

69 Tanks Detroit Steel Made in the United States of America

70 All 32 Tanks at the Brandenburg Gate

71 32 Tanks Looking through binoculars. Tanks at the Brandenburg Gate with the elevated 50 cal visible on each tank

72 East Berlin “The Garden of Remembrance” Soviet Russia's tribute to those of its soldiers who died in the siege of Berlin. In five sections are the bodies of 2,000 Soviet soldiers who died in the battle for the city

73 East Berlin “The Garden of Remembrance” This is a cemetery, and there were no crosses. Nor any other symbol to indicate that these dead had a religious faith

74 Grafenwöhr is located in beautiful Bavaria, near Nuremberg. Some American tankers might think of it as Strafen-woehr, a play on words "Punish-Woehr" Grafenwöhr

75 Every year each platoon went to Graf for Tank Gunnery

76 Grafenwöhr West German Soldiers They told me the German Army of today is not the same as it once was. They can wear long hair now. They still looked pretty formidable to me

77 Grafenwöhr Range 118

78 Grafenwöhr Towing a target down range

79 Grafenwöhr

80 Night fire – I remember staying up all night loading and unloading ammo in the rain. Then waiting for the rain to let up so we could have our turn going down range

81 Grafenwöhr

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83 One year we slept in tents

84 Mayer Hall Dunham

85 Socks standing by themselves We didn’t get much sleep, I wore the same clothes for two weeks

86 Grafenwöhr One year we slept in a nice warm barrack with a wood burning stove

87 Berlin Tank crews Grafenwöhr 1965 or 66?

88 M4 Sherman Tank Grafenwöhr Allen J Peterson James Vogel

89 Richard E Gallina Allen J Peterson Gervis Ramsey Daniel Gallagher Landis Landis Perry Joe Benolken After two weeks in Graf! Recently after seeing this picture Sgt Vickers said we looked worse than the Iraqi army Grafenwöhr

90 Lichterfelde

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92 We were knocking down the fence posts one at a time with the tank Lichterfelde

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94 105 MM HEAT METERS

95 Grunewald James F Vogel

96 Grunewald Vogel Ramsey

97 Tempelhof Airport

98 1 st Platoon Company F 40 th Armor, Berlin Brigade

99 Apartment buildings are now on the site of the former Turner Barracks We grew up in a time and place that has vanished, in a world that can be recalled by only a very few Picture from Ray Guidry

100 Gruß aus der Vergangenheit

101 November 2001, Elizabeth Town, Kentucky Old 40 th Armor Warriors

102 Being in the United States Army and in Berlin at that time and place in history changed my life in many ways. I will always remember those times and the people I was with. I’m very grateful for that opportunity. James Vogel 63 to 66


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