Presentation on theme: "Product Design. Graduates The graduate with a Science degree asks, "Why does it work?" The graduate with an Engineering degree asks, "How does it."— Presentation transcript:
Graduates The graduate with a Science degree asks, "Why does it work?" The graduate with an Engineering degree asks, "How does it work?" The graduate with an Accounting degree asks, "How much will it cost?" The graduate with a Liberal Arts degree asks, "Do you want mustard with that?"
MAJOR AREAS OF PRODUCT DESIGN Product design is a vast field of engineering technology. As such, it begins with the conception of an idea and continues through the various phases of design analysis, manufacturing, and marketing.
MAJOR AREAS OF PRODUCT DESIGN The major areas of consideration in the general field of product design are as follows: Initial design conception Strength analysis Materials selection Appearance Manufacturability Economy Safety Environmental effects Reliability and life Legal considerations
The Designer The designer must constantly keep in mind the following questions Does the design really' serve a human need? Will it be competitive with existing products of rival companies? Is it economical to produce? Can it be readily maintained? Will it sell and make a profit?
Product Engineering The product to be manufactured is first conceived by the product engineer. This engineer determines the need for a product. It may be an entirely new product or a new model of the old product. Experimental designs are made, and scale models are made and tested. Finally, a production design is created after all faults have been corrected. Part prints are drawn to illustrate the product graphically. All dimensions and specifications required are included on the print. The material to be used in the product is specified, and the product name and number is included. The functions of the product engineering department can be itemized as follows:
Function of a Product Engineering TTo design the product for function TTo design the product for customer satisfaction TTo design the product for cost TTo design the product for ease of maintenance and assembly
To design the product for function Build models for testing Provide part prints Physical dimensions Material Special processes required such as painting, plating, heat treatment, testing, and so on
To design the product for function Provide specification or standards manuals Material specifications-chemical analysis and physical properties Specifications for special processes-chemical and physical properties for plating, painting, heat treatment, and so on Procedures for testing and inspection Procedures and specifications for joining processes such as welding, brazing, soldering, riveting, cementing, and so on Specifications for threads, gears, splines, keys, and so on
To design the product for customer satisfaction Sales appeal Appearance-color and styling. Improvements-changes and additions over the old model. Designs to meet the needs of the customer.
To design the product for customer satisfaction Durability and life expectancy of product- parts are designed to satisfy customer by giving the durability expected in relation to cost.
To design the product for cost Cost of product must be low enough to compete with similar parts Cost must be high enough to provide a profit desired by owners of company Cost must be in correct relationship with durability and life expectancy
To design the product for ease of maintenance and assembly Accessibility for ease of part repair and replacement Design for ease in assembly and disassembly Provide drawings for maintenance and method of assembly
Product Engineering The product engineer is then partially responsible for the appearance, function, and cost of the product. He actually sets the specifications which will determine these characteristics of the product. No variation from these specifications can be made without approval of the product engineer. The product must be made to the part print unless authorization for alteration is obtained.
Product Engineering The product engineer must transmit information to the process engineer so that work may continue. Paperwork passing from product to process engineering includes: Part prints
Product Engineering The product engineer must transmit information to the process engineer so that work may continue. Paperwork passing from product to process engineering includes: Engineering releases Production rate per year Subassembly and assembly numbers Release date-date on which processing, tooling and all planning may start Part name, number, and material
Product Engineering The product engineer must transmit information to the process engineer so that work may continue. Paperwork passing from product to process engineering includes: Changed part print when revisions are made after the original print is distributed
Product Engineering The product engineer must transmit information to the process engineer so that work may continue. Paperwork passing from product to process engineering includes: Engineering change release-similar to the engineering release when revisions are made on part, production, material, and names
Process engineering takes place directly after product engineering has completed the design of a product. Process engineering is then the second step required in the over-all procedure before manufacture can begin. It takes the information received and then creates the plan for manufacture. Processing is then the function of determining exactly how a product will be made. The process engineer will develop a set of plans or directions on part manufacture. He will then initiate the orders required to put the plan into effect. Functions of process engineering can be itemized as follows:
Process Engineer To determine the basic manufacturing processes to be used To determine the order or sequence of operations necessary to manufacturing the part Operation routing or lineup Process pictures
Process Engineer To determine and order the tooling and gages needed to manufacture the part Orders to design Orders to build Orders to buy
Process Engineer To determine, select, and order the equipment needed to manufacture the part To determine the need for and originate orders for all process revisions necessary when part print changes occur To follow up the tooling and equipment to determine if all is functioning as planned and if not, make the necessary revisions
Process Engineer To provide estimates of the cost of tooling and equipment needed to manufacture new products for the purpose of quotations or bids. To determine part changes necessary to ease manufacture or reduce cost and request part print changes. To take part in product study groups to assist the product engineer in the design of a product that will be feasible and economical to make.
Manufacturing Processes The manufacture of all hardware products can be separated into four general categories as follows: Casting and Molding Cutting Forming Assembly
Manufacturing Processes - Casting Raw materials in the molten or powdered states are either cast or molded into the shapes desired. Liquid metals are cast in sand, plaster, or metal molds. Powdered or granular plastics are heated to the liquid state and placed under pressure in metal molds. Metal powders can be squeezed under high pressures to mold parts. Casting and molding are then used to create shapes by the use of cavities having the contours desired
Manufacturing Processes - Cutting Materials in the solid state can be shaped by cutting away small chips with a very hard and sharp tool. By removing only small chips, the forces required are small. Bar stock, extrusions, castings, forgings, and other forms can be further shaped by the cutting process. Material cutting can therefore be considered a finishing process in most cases.
Manufacturing Processes - Forming Solid materials can also be shaped by actually squeezing or stretching them under very high forces. Material forming then is used to create product shapes from bar stock, sheet materials, tubing, and similar raw materials. Often, the raw material is heated to reduce the forces required for shaping. Material forming is often referred to as a chipless manufacturing process.
Manufacturing Processes - Assembly Many final products are too complex to be made in one piece. In other cases, it is desirable to use different materials for various portions of a product to obtain the best results. Also, the final product may have components made by different general processes such as cutting, molding, or forming. In these instances, the components must be assembled to create the product. Material assembly processes are then used to join the components that have been made by the other three processes. Assembly may be temporary or permanent in nature and is then the final step in product manufacturing.
General Manufacturing Processes Each of the four general manufacturing processes can be further divided into categories as follows:
Casting and Molding Sand casting Shell casting Investment casting Die casting Pennanent mold casting Powdered metal molding Compression molding Transfer molding Extrusion Injection molding Laminating