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Fundamentals of Metal Forming Processes

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1 Fundamentals of Metal Forming Processes
Amr Shehata Fayed, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Zagazig University

2 Forming and Shaping Forming: means changing the shape of an existing solid body. Ex. The metal body for a car (sheet metal forming) Shaping: usually involves molding and casting. Ex. The white ceramic insulator for a spark plug of a car body for a car (clay molding, drying and firing)

3 Metal Forming Processes
Metal Forming includes a large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal work-pieces. Deformation results from the use of a tool, usually a die in metal forming, which applies stresses that exceed the yield strength of the metal.

4 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)
Hammer forging two connecting rods; (a) bar stock; after (b) fullering, (c) “rolling”, (d) blocking, (e) finishing, (f) trimming; (g) the flash; (h) the forging dies.

5 Metal Forming Processes
Sheet Metal-working: Also called “Press-working”. Cold working processes. Use set of punch and die. Performed on metal sheets, strips and coils. Surface area / volume is large. Bulk Deformation: Compressive deformation force. Significant deformations. Massive shape changes. Starting work shapes include billets and rectangular bars. Surface area / volume is small.

6 Metal Forming Processes
Bending operations Shearing processes Deep or Cup drawing Sheet Metalworking Rolling Forging Extrusion Wire and Bar drawing Bulk Deformation Surface Area / Volume is large Surface Area / Volume is small

7 Bulk Deformation Processes
Rolling: A compressive deformation process in which the thickness of slab or plate is reduced by two opposing tools “rolls”. They rotate to draw the work piece into the gap between them and squeeze it.

8 Bulk Deformation Processes
Forging: The work-piece is compressed between two opposing dies so that the die shapes are imparted to work. It is traditionally hot working process however many types of forging are performed cold.

9 Bulk Deformation Processes
Extrusion: A compressive deformation process in which the work metal is forced to flow through a die opening to produce a desired cross-sectional shape.

10 Bulk Deformation Processes
Drawing: The work metal is being pulled through a die opening to reduce the diameter of a wire or a bar. See Fig. Wire Drawing.

11 Examples of Precision Cold Forged Products

12 Precision Hot Forging of Complex Shapes

13 Precision Hot Forging of Complex Shapes

14 Sheet Metalworking Processes
Bending: It involves straining of metal sheet or plate to take an angle along a (usually) straight axis.

15 Sheet Metalworking Processes
Drawing: (Cup or deep drawing) Forming of a flat metal sheet into a hollow or concave shape, such as cup, by stretching the metal. A blank holder is used to hold down the blank while the punch pushes into the sheet metal.


17 Sheet Metalworking Processes
Shearing: It involves cutting rather than forming of a metal. A shearing operation cuts the work using a punch and die.

18 Importance of Metal Forming in Manufacturing Engineering
Net Shape or Close to Net Shape High Production Rate High Profit Margin Low Scrap Rate Improving Material Properties

19 Applications and Products of Metal forming in Macro Scale
Automotive Aerospace Appliance Cookware

20 Current Issues of Metal Forming Industry
Lack of Experienced Metal Forming Engineer Short Product Life Cycle New Metallic Materials Developing New Hybrid Process High Accuracy and Small Feature Products

21 Skills Needed for Metal Forming Engineering
Mechanics Material Science Manufacturing Process Design and Control Machinery Computer Skills FEA

22 Students Need To know the current and future needs of metal forming industry. To be taught on a series of classes to meet challenges of current and future metal forming industry.

23 Homework Is metal forming the most cost effective manufacturing process? Why metal forming is the best process for mass production? According to your imagination, what is the best process to make beverage can?

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