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Lesson two The writing process British or American Subject-verb agreement Text discussion Writing – tools of the trade.

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson two The writing process British or American Subject-verb agreement Text discussion Writing – tools of the trade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson two The writing process British or American Subject-verb agreement Text discussion Writing – tools of the trade

2 The writing process Pre-writing – background reading – note-taking – brainstorming – pre-planning Drafting – write draft Feedback and revision – re-reading – peer review – revise

3 British or American 1.lägenhetflatapartment 2.linnetank topvest 3.plåsterband-aidplaster 4.konservburktincan 5.blöjanappydiaper 6.hisselevatorlift 7.suddgummirubbereraser 8.bensinpetrolgas 9.ficklampatorchflashlight 10.kölinequeue 11.brevbärar manpostman 12.ljuddämpare (bil)mufflersilencer 13.kakabiscuitcookie 14.byxorpantstrousers 15.trottoarpavementsidewalk 16.gardrobclosetcupboard 17.soptunnabintrash can 18.flygplanairplaneaeroplane 19.semesterholidayvacation 20.vindruta (bil)windscreenwindshield

4 British or American 1.lägenhetflatapartment 2.linnetank topvest 3.plåsterband-aidplaster 4.konservburktincan 5.blöjanappydiaper 6.hisselevatorlift 7.suddgummirubbereraser 8.bensinpetrolgas 9.ficklampatorchflashlight 10.kölinequeue 11.brevbärar manpostman 12.ljuddämpare (bil)mufflersilencer 13.kakabiscuitcookie 14.byxorpantstrousers 15.trottoarpavementsidewalk 16.gardrobclosetcupboard 17.soptunnabintrash can 18.flygplanairplaneaeroplane 19.semesterholidayvacation 20.vindruta (bil)windscreenwindshield

5 Subject-Verb Agreement 1.Saying that you are sorry... nothing. (change) 2.The origin of these rumours.... obscure. (be) 3.The United States... a vast country. (be) 4.To me, 50 dollars... a lot of money. (be) Bill and Harry still in business? (be) 6.Statistics... that acoustics... a popular subject. (show, remain) 7.To balance such books... a lot of work. (take) 8.The job of establishing sufficient controls and measurements so that you can tell what is actually happening to athletes..... tediously complex. (be) 9.The blind... not want pity. (do) 10. He was fascinated by the stories in the Old Testament that... history to be determined by chance meetings and by small, personal incidents. (show) 11.There.... nothing like an itchy rash for wearing a person down. (be) 12.If the sound spectrum is divided into frequency bands, each... separately coded. (be) 13.In what ways.... computerisation improve mail order services? (do)

6 Subject-Verb Agreement 1.Law and order are important in today’s society. 2.Most bureaucrats seem to think statistics are fun. 3.Tom or Sheila are going to do the presentation. 4.The meaning of these words defy me. 5.One of the scientists that works on the project says that there are more planets yet to be discovered. 6.Everybody love their pets. 7.Give the money to me right away. They are mine. 8.Your reading glasses is by the bed. 9.That is a really good advice. 10.Can you explain why my best pair of trousers have a hole in them?

7 Subject-Verb Agreement Saying that you are sorry... nothing. (change) Saying that you are sorry changes nothing. The origin of these rumours.... obscure. (be) The origin of these rumours is obscure. The United States... a vast country. (be) The United States is a vast country. To me, 50 dollars... a lot of money. (be) To me, 50 dollars is a lot of money.... Bill and Harry still in business? (be) Are Bill and Harry still in business?

8 Subject-Verb Agreement Statistics... that acoustics... a popular subject. (show, remain) Statistics show that acoustics remains a popular subject To balance such books... a lot of work. (take) To balance such books takes a lot of work. (take) The job of establishing sufficient controls and measurements so that you can tell what is actually happening to athletes..... tediously complex. (be) The job of establishing sufficient controls and measurements so that you can tell what is actually happening to athletes is tediously complex. The blind... not want pity. (do) The blind do not want pity.

9 Subject-Verb Agreement He was fascinated by the stories in the Old Testament that... history to be determined by chance meetings and by small, personal incidents. (show) He was fascinated by the stories in the Old Testament that show history to be determined by chance meetings and by small, personal incidents. There.... nothing like an itchy rash for wearing a person down. (be) There is nothing like an itchy rash for wearing a person down. (be) If the sound spectrum is divided into frequency bands, each... separately coded. (be) If the sound spectrum is divided into frequency bands, each is separately coded. In what ways.... computerisation improve mail order services? (do) In what ways does computerisation improve mail order services?

10 Subject-Verb Agreement Law and order are important in today’s society. Law and order is important in today’s society. Most bureaucrats seem to think statistics are fun. Most bureaucrats seem to think statistics is fun. Tom or Sheila are going to do the presentation. Tom or Sheila is going to do the presentation. The meaning of these words defy me. The meaning of these words defies me. One of the scientists that works on the project says that there are more planets yet to be discovered.

11 Subject-Verb, Nouns Everybody love their pets. Everybody loves their pets. Give the money to me right away. They are mine. Give the money to me right away. It is mine. Your reading glasses is by the bed. Your reading glasses are by the bed. That is a really good advice. That is really good advice. Can you explain why my best pair of trousers have a hole in them? Can you explain why my best pair of trousers has a hole in them?

12 Outdated airport security 1.What would you say is the main message/thesis of this article? Where in the article is this message/thesis expressed? 2.What are the main arguments that support this message/thesis in the article? 3.What are the different structural parts of the article? What section of the text is part of the introduction and what section is part of the conclusion? Can you detect a structure in the main body of the text? Are there different parts which support the main message/thesis in different ways? Is it possible to say what the topic is of each paragraph? 4.How does the author use style and evaluative vocabulary to convince the reader of his message/thesis? 5.Do you find the arguments presented in the article convincing? Can you find any good counterarguments to the arguments presented in the article? Are there any problems or inconsistencies in the argumentation? What approach would you take if you were going to argue against the message/thesis in this article?

13 Vocabulary What does “aiding and abetting” mean? In what context is the phrase used? (paragraph 1, line 2-3) The noun phrase “The security checkpoint we know today” can also be formulated with a relative pronoun, i.e. “The security checkpoint that we know today”. When is it possible to leave out a relative pronoun in English? (paragraph 2, line 1) What different things are “deployed” in this text? What does “person” mean in the context “carried on the person”? (paragraph 2, line 5) What does it mean for something to be a “workhorse”? (paragraph 2, line 6)

14 Vocabulary 5.What is the difference between “can’t” and “cannot”? (paragraph 3, line 1) 6.What does it mean “to screen” something in the current context? What other meanings could “to screen” have? (paragraph 4, line 1) 7.What is a “deterrent” (paragraph 4, line 2) 8.When do you use “bold” and when do you use “boldly”? (paragraph 4, line 3) 9.What alternative word to a sentence initial “but” can be used to express a contrast? 10.What other words can you use for “unworkable”? (paragraph 16, line 1)

15 Vocabulary 10.What is the difference between “reactive” and “proactive”? (paragraph 16, line 3) 11.What is a “civil libertarian”? (paragraph 16, line 4) 12.What words in the text have a similar meaning to “antiquated”? 13.Why is a colon used in paragraph 5, line 2, and paragraph 6, line 1? 14.What is the difference between “look to” and “look for”? (paragraph 7, line 1) 15.How do you pronounce “analysis” and what is the plural of that word? (paragraph 7, line 4)

16 Vocabulary 16.What is the difference in meaning between “bound from” and “bound for”? (paragraph 7, line 6) 17.What does “unwittingly” mean? (paragraph 8, line 1) 18.Why is a semi-colon used in paragraph 9, sentence What does “so” refer to? (paragraph 11, line 1) 20.What is the function of “so” initially? (paragraph 12, line 1) 21.“Persons” is rather limited as the plural form of “person”. What is the more common plural form? (paragraph 12, line 3) 22.What different terms for criminal actions or items are used in the article? 23.What do you do when you “advocate” something? (paragraph 16, line 1)

17 Tools of the trade Monolingual dictionary Thesaurus Style guide Usage reference Grammar

18 Monolingual dictionary

19

20 Thesaurus (Taken from consider → verb 1. Isabel considered her choices THINK ABOUT, contemplate, reflect on, examine, review; mull over, ponder, deliberate on, chew over, meditate on, ruminate on; assess, evaluate, weigh up, appraise; informal size up. 2. I consider him irresponsible DEEM, think, believe, judge, adjudge, rate, count, find; regard as, hold to be, reckon to be, view as, see as. 3. he considered the ceiling LOOK AT, contemplate, observe, regard, survey, view, scrutinize, scan, examine, inspect; informal check out; N. Amer. informal eyeball. 4. the inquiry will consider those issues TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION, take account of, make allowances for, bear in mind, be mindful of, remember, mind, mark, respect, heed, note, make provision for. opposites: ignore.

21 Style guide

22 Usage guide

23

24 Grammar


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