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ENVER PASHA (November 22, 1881 - killed in 1922 while leading an anti-Bolshevik revolt in Turkestan ) Minister of War. The Ottoman Empire should be cleaned.

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Presentation on theme: "ENVER PASHA (November 22, 1881 - killed in 1922 while leading an anti-Bolshevik revolt in Turkestan ) Minister of War. The Ottoman Empire should be cleaned."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVER PASHA (November 22, 1881 - killed in 1922 while leading an anti-Bolshevik revolt in Turkestan ) Minister of War. The Ottoman Empire should be cleaned up of the Armenians and the Lebanese. We have destroyed the former by the sword, we shall destroy the latter through starvation (may 19,1916). Senior lecturer at the Open University of Israel and the Kibbutzim College of Education, Professor Yair Auron has dedicated himself to bringing to light the connection between the Armenians and the Jews, their trials and tribulations. In his book The Banality of Indifference : Zionism and the Armenian Genocide (Transaction Books, 2000), he writes : « At the time of the Armenian genocide, the possibility of its extension to include the Ottoman Jews was just barely avoided. One cannot help but be reminded that between the two world wars, when the fate of the Armenians became the forgotten genocide, European Jewry failed to heed the clear early warnings of Hitler's final solution. » Auron prepared a curriculum on the Armenian genocide for the Israeli schools, « recognizing the Armenian Genocide is of a major historical, moral and educational significance [and essential] for the non- recurrence of similar instances in the future. » Israel Resource Review (16th May, 2004).

2 JEAN JAURES (1859, assassinated July 31, 1914 in Paris, France), Deputy, founder of the French Socialist party (1901). We have come to the times when humanity cannot live with, in his basement, the corpse of a murdered people. (1896)

3 FAIZ EL-GHUSEIN (1883-1938), Lawyer, Ottoman Captain in army (first world war), Councilor of King FEISAL I, friend of Lawrence of Arabia, his rests in El Sharaeh (Syria), native village. Is it right that these imposters, who pretend to be the supports of Islam and the khilafat, the protectors of the Moslems, should transgress the command of God, transgress the Koran, the traditions of the prophet, and the humanity? Truly, they have committed an act at which Islam is revolted, as well as all Moslems and all the peoples of the earth, be they Muslims, Christians, Jews, or idolaters. As God lives, it is a shameful deed, the like of which has not been done by any people counting themselves as civilized. (Martyred Armenia, 1916)

4 HENRY MORGENTHAU’S (1856-1946), US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1913-1916). Village after village and town after town were evacuated of their Armenian population, under the distressing circumstances already detailed. In these six months, as far as can be ascertained, about 1,200,000 people started on this journey to the Syrian desert. > they would say as they left their homes- the homes which their ancestors had lived for 2,500 years. Their suffering are still terrible, and constitute another chapter in the long story of crimes for which civilization will hold the Turk responsible. (1918)

5 THEODORE ROOSEVELT (1858-1919), President of United States of America (1901-1909), Noble Peace Prize (1906). The Armenian massacre was the greatest crime of the war…the failure to deal radically with the Turkish horrors means that…All talk of guaranteeing the future peace of the world is mischievous nonsense. (May 11, 1918).

6 . TALAAT PASHA (1872. assassinated by Soghomon Tehlirian march 15, 1921 in Berlin, Germany) – Minister of the Interior To the Governate of Aleppo. It was previously communicated to you that the Government, by order of the Jemiet (another name for the Ittihad) had decided to destroy completely all the Armenians living in Turkey. Those who oppose this order and decision cannot remain on the official staff of the empire. Irrespective of sex and age, an end must be put to their existence, however tragic the means of extermination may be, and no regard must be paid to conscientious scruples. September 15, 1915. Talaat.

7 YOSSI SARID Minister of Education of the Israel State (1993-2003) Today in Israel, very few youngsters have heard about Musa Dagh, very few Know about the Armenian Genocide. I know how important the position of the Jews, and especially the attitude of the State of Israel, I will do whatever is in my capability in order that this monumental work The Forty Days of Musa Dagh is once more well known to our children. I will do everything in order that Israel children learn and know about the Armenian Genocide. (April 24, 2000).

8 YONA METZGER (1953-) : Israel’s Ashkenazi chief rabbi (2003-) The Jewish religious community recognizes the fact of the genocide, and, together with the Armenian people, grieves for the innocent victims. Of course, I use the term genocide. All the pictures and the documents we have seen at the Genocide Museum prove that. (November 22, 2005).

9 JOHN PAUL II (1920-2005) A process of genocide is being carried out before the eyes of the world.(2000)

10 JACQUES CHIRAC President of the French Republic (1995-) The world could not forget that two thirds of the Armenian people of the Ottoman Empire were exterminated in 1915 and 1916 on the order of the government of this country. (March 24, 1995). France waits of Turkey until it concludes its required duty of memory. We are convinced that it will include/understand the need, because such is the spirit of Copenhagen’s criteria that each candidate to demonstrates the full respect. (May 24, 2005).

11 YOSSI BEILIN (1948-), Foreign Minister (1992-1995) Minister of Justice of Israel State (1999-2001) KNESSET: April 27, 1994, In answer to the claims of the Turkish Ambassador, that >

12 JALAL TALABANI (Interim President of Iraq, April 6, 2005-). The genocide whose the Armenians in 1915 were victims, is repeated now in Iraqi Kurdistan. (London, march, 19 1988).

13 It is not possible to erase the traces of the genocide which struck you. That must be registered in the memory of the men and this sacrifice must be used as teaching to the young people at the same time as the will to survive so that one knows, through time, that these people do not belong to the past, that it is well present and that it has a future. (January 6, 1984). François MITTERRAND (1916-1995), President of the French Republic (1981-1995)

14 German response of Bundestag to a « Armenian resolution » Argument 1. Moreover, contrary to the assertion presented in a persistent way by Turkey with an intense propaganda, the subjective facts of the genocide must be regarded as accomplished because the Ottoman government ordered from this moment by the Young Turks prepared the execution of the deportations and the massacres « with intention » to destroy « the national group » Armenian « as such, completely or partly ». Deportations having for objective the physical destruction [...] June 16, 2005). Professor Dr. Otto LUCHTERHANDT (University of Hamburg, seminar department for east right research).

15 Today, I humbly bow in memory of the Armenian martyrs, who died in the name of freedom at the hands of Turkish perpetrators of Genocide (1969). Ronald REAGAN (1911-2004), President of United States of America (1981-1989).

16 The massacres that started in 1915 have nothing to compare with the history of mankind. The massacres by Abdul Hamid are minor in comparison to what today's Turks have done. And : Woe to the Armenians, that they were ever drawn into European politics! It would have been better for them if the name of Armenia had never been uttered by any European diplomatist. (Armenia and the Near East, or, l'Armenie et le Proche Orient, Paris, 1923) FRIDTJOF NANSEN (1861-1930), Norwegian polar explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanist, Nobel Peace Prize (1922).

17 Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959), international lawyer, invented the term « genocide », and succeeded in persuading the United Nations to adopt the Genocide Convention in December, 9 1948. I became interested in genocide because it happened to the Armenians; and afterwards] the Armenians got a very rough deal at the Versailles Conference because their criminals were guilty of genocide and were not punished. You know that they [the Ottoman Turks] were organized in a terroristic organization which took justice into its own hands. The trial of Talaat Pasha in 1921 in Berlin is very instructive. A man (Soghomon Tehlirian), whose mother was killed in the genocide, killed Talaat Pasha. And he told the court that he did it because his mother came in his sleep... many times. Here, …the murder of your mother, you would do something about it! So he committed a crime. So, you see, as a lawyer, I thought that a crime should not be punished by the victims, but should be punished by a court, by a national law.. Interview on CBS TV (1949)

18 I incline myself in front of the victims of the massacres perpetrated to go against your peaceful people by the Turkish governments at that time with an aim to exterminate. Condemnable barbarian crime that the human conscience must banish, never accept, nor to forget. You are a small people, rich of culture and history; humanity owes you much and I am persuaded today that of this small number of survivors, tomorrow a valiant youth will make reappear an Armenia in security, free and independent. (General de Gaulle, Damascus-Syria, July 1941). Charles de GAULLE (1890-1970), President of the French Republic (1958-1969).

19 Gerald FORD Addressing to the US House of Representatives : Mr. Speaker, with mixed emotions we mark the 50th anniversary of the Turkish genocide of the Armenian people. In taking notice of the shocking events in 1915, we observe this anniversary with sorrow in recalling the massacres of Armenians and with pride in saluting those brave patriots who survived to fight on the side of freedom during World War I. Congressional Record, pp. 88-90 (1965) Gerald FORD (1913-), President of United States of America (1974-1977).

20 Nazim HIKMET (poet, 1902-1963), stripped of Turkish nationality in 1950. « This Armenian citizen won't forgive his father's slaughter in the Kurdish mountains. But he likes you, because you also can't forgive those who blackened the Turkish people's name. »

21 Arnold J. TOYNBEE (1889-1975), British historian who studied the rise and fall of civilizations looking for cyclical patterns ; auhor of Armenian atrocities, the Murder of a Nation (1915), Blue book (1916), The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-16 (1916)…

22 Letter from Viscount Bryce to Viscount Grey of Falloden, 1 July 1916 My Dear Sir Edward, In the autumn of 1915 accounts of massacres and deportations of the Christian population of Asiatic Turkey began to reach Western Europe and the United States. Few and imperfect at first - for every effort was made by the Turkish Government to prevent them from passing out of the country - these accounts increased in number and fullness of detail, till in the beginning of 1916 it became possible to obtain a fairly accurate knowledge of what had happened... As materials were wanting or scanty in respect of some localities, I wrote to all the persons I could think of likely to possess or to be able to procure trustworthy data, begging them to favor me with such data... When the responses from these quarters showed that sufficient materials for a history could be obtained, I had the good fortune to secure the co- operation of a young historian of high academic distinction, Mr. Arnold J. Toynbee, late Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. He undertook to examine and put together the pieces of evidence collected, arranging them in order and adding such observations, historical and geographical, as seemed needed to explain them. The materials so arranged by Mr. Toynbee I now transmit to you...

23 Sir Winston CHURCHILL (1875-1965) first Lord of the Admiralty (1911-1915).

24 On March 12, 1920, the Supreme Council offered the mandate to the League of Nations. But the League, unsupported by men or money, promptly and with prudence declined. There remained the Treaty of Sèvres. On August 10 the Powers compelled the Constantinople Government to recognize an as yet undetermined Armenia as a free and independent State. Article 89 prescribed that Turkey must submit to 'the arbitration of the President of the United States of America the question of the frontier to be fixed between Turkey and Armenia in the vilayets of Erzeroum, Trebizond, Van and Bitlis, and to accept his decision thereupon, as well as any stipulation he may prescribe as to access of Armenia to the sea.' It was not until December 1920 that President Wilson completed the discharge of this high function. The frontier he defined gave Armenia virtually all the Turkish territory which had been occupied by Russian troops until they disbanded themselves under the influence of the Revolution; and era which, added to the Republic of Erivan, made an Armenian national homeland of nearly sixty thousand square miles.

25 So generous was the recognition in theory of Armenian claims that the Armenian and Greek population of the new State was actually outnumbered by Moslem inhabitants. Here was justice and much more. It existed however upon paper only. Already nearly a year before, in January 1920, the Turks had attacked the French in Cilicia, driven them out of the Marash district and massacred nearly fifty thousand Armenian inhabitants. In May Bolshevik troops invaded and subjugated the Republic of Erivan. In September, by collusion between the Bolsheviks and Turks, Erivan was delivered to the Turkish Nationalists; and as in Cilicia, another extensive massacre of Armenians accompanied the military operations. Even the hope that a small autonomous Armenian province might eventually be established in Cilicia under French protection was destroyed. In October France, by the Agreement of Angora, undertook to evacuate Cilicia completely. In the Treaty of Lausanne, which registered the final peace between Turkey and the Great Powers, history will search in vain for the word « Armenia ». (Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, vol. 5, « The Aftermath » 1929).

26 Photo of Armin T. Wegner (1886-1978) Abdullah GÜL (1950-), Turkish Prime Minister (2002) and Foreign Minister (2003-). We will never recognize the so-called Armenian genocide (Dec 19, 2004)

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