2Categorisation of Natural Maritime Disasters Atmospheric Disturbances(Depressions causing Tropical Storms etc.)Seismic Disturbances(Subduction Earthquakes causing ocean bed plate displacements triggering Tsunami)
3Tsunami Action “If you can’t measure it, You can’t manage it Tsunami Action “If you can’t measure it, You can’t manage it!” -Peter DruckerGenerates immense wave potential energyWave speed builds up to km/hrWave speed directly proportional to the depth of waterWave potential energy flow remains constant during ripple-effect propagation
4Tsunami Energy Wave energy is related to its speed and height. Wave speed is directly proportional to the depth of water, i.e., in shallow waters the speed diminishes while retaining its potential energy.Wave height is inversely proportional to the depth of water, i.e., in shallow waters the wave height increases.
5Tsunami Energy & the Coastline At the coastline there is a decrease in water depths.The speed of the Tsunami slows down and at this phenomena the wave potential energy is released into the kinetic form.The height of the Tsunami increases lending credence to its English translation, “Harbour Wave”
6Tsunami Energy & The Coastline After Tsunami crosses into the coastline in height and enormous amount of kinetic energy release.The wave generates the push factor.In order to maintain the equilibrium of wave mass in its aftermath, the wave recedes generating the pull factor.
7The ‘Push & Pull’ of the Tsunami The coast line content of fishing villages, resorts, ports, industries, and promenades are all targets of the ‘Push & Pull’ factors.Life and Property is at risk and devastation follows.Relief and rescue measures follow.The Loss is then Calculated.
8Tsunami – Port Infrastructure Exposure Berth side equipment such as gantry, cranes etc.Berth side open and enclosed warehouses.Road and Rail lines-interconnectivity facilities.Vessel Traffic Management System.
9Tsunami – Marine Infrastructure Exposure Berth side, approach, main channel, fairwaymaintenance of guaranteed depths.Navigational aids such a fairway, channel and breakwater marker buoys and lighthouses.Harbour Tugs, mooring and pilot launches and other small harbour crafts.
10Tsunami – Targets in Ports Ships in port.Oil & Gas loading terminals, connected pipelines and Tank Farms.Bulk loading conveyors and facilities.Cargo warehouses.Coastline erosion leading to silted port areas.Navigational aids.
11Tsunami – Targets in Fishing Harbour Fishing vessels.Fishing equipment like nets.Warehouses.Marker buoys.Common facilities like workshops, dry docks.
12Tsunami – Mitigation Measures Action Plan in a language understood by target group.Ship Evacuation sequence based on the commodity being handled, ship size and berth exposure to wave action.Vessel Traffic Management System to electronically guide ships out of harbour without a pilot.Shutting down and securing terminal installations.Cargo Evacuation sequence based upon value.Emergency communication.
13Tsunami – Loss Prevention Arriving ships to be notified of Tsunami procedures for rapid evacuation.Engine immobilization to be sanctioned on a case-by-case basis.Ships to maintain good stability condition at all times during port operations.Ships to be well stored for rapid evacuation.
14Tsunami – Port responsibility Areas of refuge during tsunami to be designated for ship to proceed.Constant communication with ships in areas of refuge.Create areas along coast line to beach small crafts and securing arrangements.
15Tsunami – Search, Rescue & Salvage. Coast Guard will coordinate Search & Rescue operations for people washed seawards.Port Authority will coordinate with salvageassociation in tandem with effected ship owners.
16Tsunami Disaster - Conclusions Atmospheric & Sub-ducted seismic disturbances can be predicted.Disaster management is measure based.Disaster management is all about taking trained decisions and chain of command and control-brought about by regular drills.Disaster management is being pro-active about nature’s wrath