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History of the Old Testament United Monarchy 1, 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1-11 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles 1-9.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Old Testament United Monarchy 1, 2 Samuel 1 Kings 1-11 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles 1-9."— Presentation transcript:

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2 History of the Old Testament United Monarchy 1, 2 Samuel 1 Kings Chronicles 2 Chronicles 1-9

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4 Introduction: Tribal League ended/national crisis... in southwest Canaan, the Sea Peoples, a new population from the Aegean powerful military aristocracy in 5 cities The Philistines (Palestine)

5 Philistine Control gained control of … –the Negev –some areas of the mountains –the Plain of Esdraelon destroyed … –Shiloh & –captured Ark of the Covenant (1 Sa. 4:1-11) deployed forces … –key border locations (1 Sa. 10:5; 13:3) destroyed … –metal industry (1 Sa. 13:19-22)

6 leadership of Eli & Samuel –seriously weakened –due to the degeneracy of sons (1 Sa. 2:12-17, 22-25; 8:1-5) on the verge of collapse –external threats & internal degeneracy –asked Samuel for a monarchy (Ge. 17:6, 16; Dt. 17:14-20)

7 Theological History Continued lives out the code of kings evaluated by to the covenant

8 Theological History: first history: 1, 2 Samuel & 1, 2 Kings second history: 1, 2 Chronicles 1 Samuel (stands alone) 2 Samuel roughly parallels 1 Chronicles 1 & 2 Kings roughly parallels 2 Chronicles

9 1st Samuel 2nd Samuel 1st Kings 2nd Kings ……………………………………… ……………. 1st Chronicles 2nd Chronicles ……………….

10 Birth of the Monarchy (1 Samuel 1-8) Samuel: –transitional figure [Tribal League & Monarchy] Last of the judges, –presided over crowning of the first king (1 Sa. 7:15-16) EliApprentice to Eli –judge & priest at Shiloh, in Ephraim, –Tent of Meeting (1 Sa. 1-2)

11 Shiloh Destroyed Eli & both of his sons died –vacuum in leadership (1 Sa. 4) –until Samuel stepped up (1 Sa. 7:6) Yahweh: “loss of Shiloh = divine judgment upon the nation for covenant breaking” (1 Sa. 3; cf. 7:2-4) the nation began the process of rebuilding from the Philistine invasion (1 Sa. 7)

12 still seriously hampered by the encroachment of Philistine garrisons (1 Sa. 10:5; 13:3) loss of metal industry (1 Sa. 13:19-22) a serious military threat from the Ammonites (1 Sa. 12:12)

13 Saul's Kingship (1 Samuel 9-31; 1Chronicles 1-10) Samuel helped the nation establish a monarchy with Yahweh's permission (1 Sa. 8:6-18). Saul of Benjamin, the first king (1 Sa. 9-10)

14 Saul's Kingship (1 Samuel 9-31; 1Chronicles 1-10) Samuel helped the nation establish a monarchy with Yahweh's permission (1 Sa. 8:6-18). Saul of Benjamin, the first king (1 Sa. 9-10) begins w/a victorious campaign vs. Ammonites (1 Sa. 11) ; Samuel stepped aside to allow the new king to have full political control (1 Sa. 12)

15 Philistine Threat & Saul’s Serious Mistakes Usurped priestly role Incomplete extermination Kingship w/end Rejected by God

16 Driven to Insanity David … –joined the military service –distinguished himself in the battle with Goliath (1 Sa. 17) –Saul extremely jealous (1 Sa. 18) Saul's suspicion … –David was to be his replacement –attacked him (1 Sa. 19) –D. forced to become an outlaw (1 Sa )

17 various disenfranchised Israelites joined him (1 Sa. 22), forming a private army (1 Sa. 27) Saul's life twice spared: David refused to exact personal vengeance (1 Sa. 24, 26).

18 Philistine Invasion turned to a witch for spiritual direction (1 Sa. 28) 3 oldest sons killed (battle at Mt. Gilboa) committed suicide (1 Sa. 31; 1 Chr. 10)

19 Kingship of David (2 Sam. 1-24; 1 Kgs 1-2; 1 Chron ) political vacuum left by death of Saul Leaders during the period of the judges chosen by divine appointment most monarchies: transition of power went to the son without a formal policy for the transition of power: civil war

20 Political Vacuum (continued) Judah: David... divinely chosen, like the judges and Saul, the first king other clans: Esh-Baal, like traditional pattern (2 Sa. 1-2) 7-Year Struggle for control

21 Finally... –Gen. Abner defected to David Esh-Baal assassinated... the full twelve clans of Israel united under David's kingship (2 Sa. 3-4)

22 Consolidation A Very Low Ebb …  threatened by the encroaching Canaanite nations...  exhausted during the period of Saul's insanity and the civil war following his death

23 captured Jebus (Jerusalem); –capital of the united kingdom drove the Philistines back onto the south coastal plain (2 Sa. 5; 1 Chr ) brought the Ark of the Covenant back to Jerusalem (2 Sa. 6; 1 Chr )

24 Permanent Place for Worship Prophet Nathan: “your son will build the temple” (2 Sa. 7:12-13; 1 Chr. 17:11-12) Davidic Covenant: divine guarantee of a perpetual dynasty & the safety of the people in the land forever (2 Sa. 7; 1 Chr. 17).

25 Conquest of Canaan Completed Just as God had promised Abraham so many centuries before, the whole land of Canaan now belonged to his descendents. –The monarchy was secure! –The permanent place of worship was soon to be built!

26 expanded the territories of Israel to the north, east & south (2 Sa ; 1 Chr ) Then, at the height of his power, David tragically sinned...

27 David’s Tragic Sin (2 Sa. 11) during the final stages of the campaign against the Ammonites army sent to Rabbah to finish the campaign, but David stayed in the capital... committed adultery with the wife of one of his soldiers (2 Sa. 11)

28 David’s Sin (cont.) coverup: had the man killed 2 Sa. 11:27... “But the thing David had done displeased the LORD.” Nathan confronts... David acknowledges his sin with deep repentance and humility before God (2 Sa. 12; cf. Ps. 51)... God forgives But, the aftermath...

29 Court History of David (2 Sa ) : Details of Aftermath Amnon, raped his half-sister, Tamar... Absalom, murdered Amnon (2 Sa. 13) irreparable breach: David vs. Absalom A. temporarily exiled...engineered a coup d'etat... killed... ending the revolt (2 Sa ) Sheba--loyalist to Saul --staged a revolt--put down quickly (2 Sa. 20)

30 Close of David's Reign (2 Sa ) conducted a complete military census (2 Sa. 24; 1 Chr. 21)... displeased God, who responded with severe judgment occupied his remaining days in preparing for the new temple (1 Chr ) managed to have Solomon safely installed (1 Kg. 1) final charge to Solomon David died (1 Kg. 2)

31 Solomon's Kingship (1 Kings 3-11; 2 Chronicles 1-9) left with a considerable empire to administrate... requested wisdom (1 Kg. 3-4; 2 Chr. 1) two massive building projects: the temple the royal palace

32 temple: 7 years using combined Israelite & Phoenician artisans (1 Kg. 5; 2 Chr. 2)... palace: 13 years similar to the Tent of Meeting with considerable development of supporting architectural features (1 Kg. 6-7; 2 Chr. 3-4)

33 dedicated to Yahweh... Ark of the Covenant installed in the Most Holy Place of the sanctuary (1 Kg. 8; 2 Chr. 5-7) The cloud of Yahweh's presence... a la the days of the Tent of Meeting, now took up residence in the temple.

34 Solomon’s Temple 966 B.C. – 586 B.C. Zerubbabel’s Temple 520 B.C. – 63 B.C. Herod’s Temple 20 B.C. – 70 A.D

35 Reaffirmation of the Deuteronomic Code (1 Kg. 9:1-9) Danger Signs Political alliance Foreign-born wives Building altars

36 Disastrous Steps (cont.) By the end of his reign... a nation on the brink of political rupture... policies of forced labor for citizens and heavy taxation Jeroboam informed by a prophet: the kingdom will split, dynasty of David will be left with only two tribes (1 Kg. 11) Solomon's own policies & religious deviations set in motion forces of disintegration.


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