Workshop Objectives 2 There are 7 broad workshop objectives, reflected in the 7 workshop modules.
CREATING CONTEXT MODULE 1: Understanding Violence Against Women and Child Protection MODULE 2: Mothering In The Context Of Violence Against Women MODULE 3: Understanding Violence Against Women And Their Children 3
APPROACHES MODULE 4: Determining A Response To Woman Abuse And Child Protection MODULE 5: Applying a Women-Centred Approach to Child Protection Investigations MODULE 6: Effective Ways to Protect Children and Youth MODULE 7: Building Common Ground: Linking Protection and Safety 4
MODULE 1 Creating Context Understanding Violence Against Women and Child Protection 5
Personal Safety 7 The materials that will be explored may be highly charged. Take care of your own well-being; be mindful of others in the training. active listening respectful communication consideration for differing perspectives honour confidentiality
Module 1 Learning Objectives 8 Participants will: Feel safe to explore challenging concepts and practices related to child protection within the context of violence against women in relationships Understand rationale for development of the Best Practices Approaches and training Be introduced to the Best Practice Approaches
Best Practice Approaches Background Developed by MCFD in response to concerns expressed by: Child Protection Workers Front-line Workers and Clinicians delivering services to women experiencing abuse and children affected by witnessing abuse An example of the concerns expressed was removing children while they were residing with their mother at a transition house. 9
Best Practice Approaches Background 2000 Policy Paper outlining these issues submitted to MCFD by Provincial Anti-Violence Organizations: BC Association of Specialized Victim Assistance & Counselling Programs BC/Yukon Society of Transition Houses BC Women’s Hospital’s Provincial Woman Abuse Response Program BC Institute Against Family Violence 10
Best Practice Approaches Background Developing A Dialogue: A Preliminary Discussion Paper on Child Protection Issues in Cases Involving Violence Against Women and Children * * www.endingviolence.org 11
Best Practice Approaches Background 2000 Meeting between provincial anti-violence organizations and Director of Child Protection at MCFD Agreement with the Director’s recommendation: Collaborate with MCFD to jointly develop BEST PRACTICE APPROACHES for child protection interventions in violence against women cases. 12
Best Practice Approaches Background 2001 Working Group Anti-Violence Experts Child Protection Experts Ministry of Children and Family Development Ministry of Community, Aboriginal and Women’s Services Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General 2001 to 2004 Best Practice Approaches Developed and made available to child protection workers 13
Best Practice Approaches Background 2006 – 2008 Best Practice Approaches Training MCFD allocated resources to develop training Opportunity for child protection workers to: Learn about Best Practice Approaches Learn how to apply Best Practice Approaches 14
Best Practice Approaches Background Questions/Discussion 15
Violence Against Women Defining the Issue Any act of gender-based violence that results in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women. United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women 16
A pattern of intentionally coercive and violent behavior toward an individual with whom there is or has been an intimate relationship. These behaviours can be used to establish control of an individual and can include physical and sexual abuse; psychological abuse with verbal intimidation, progressive social isolation, or deprivation; and economic control. Domestic Violence in Women El-Bayoumi, Borum, Haywood Medical Clinics of North America 17 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
Abusive Tactics Include BUT are not limited to: Verbal Threats, yelling, insults Mental Using tactics to convince her that she is crazy or stupid Emotional Using guilt and other strategies to make her think that she’s a bad mother/partner/person. Ignoring her or using jealousy to control her. Sexual Preventing choice about sex, birth control or STI protection. Withholding sexual affection 18 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
Physical Hitting, choking, kicking, use of weapons Financial Controlling the decisions about finances, not allowing her to access money or bank accounts Spiritual Belittling her religion, keeping her from practicing her faith Cultural Belittling her culture, racial insults Social Isolating her from friends or family, controlling her whereabouts and who she can associate with 19 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
Other forms of inequality and oppression which include poverty, colonization, racism, heterosexism, and ableism intersect with gender to shape experiences of women in abusive relationships reduce appropriate services increase risks 20 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
The impact is significant—isolation, degradation of self, fear, and loss of autonomy—which further entrap women in the relationship. 21 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
The greatest danger women face is when they try to leave, or otherwise challenge their partners’ authority. 22 Violence Against Women Defining the Issue
Human rights violations internationally perpetrated differently against women Women represent the overwhelming majority of abuse survivors. Power inequalities and dynamics within gender relations results in abuse that disproportionately affects women. 23 Violence Against Women Global Issues
The many manifestations of gender based violence point to: the significant role that social norms, gender roles, and social and political institutions play in legitimizing and therefore perpetuating woman abuse, in addition to contributing to women’s vulnerability to abuse. 24 Violence Against Women Global Issues
Research on rates of woman abuse has played a vital role in establishing the seriousness of the issue worldwide, although results do not adequately reflect the complex nature of woman abuse. Researchers recommend complementing quantitative studies with research that looks at the experiences of victims. 25 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
AT LEAST One in three women will experience abuse in an 'intimate' relationship at some point in their adult lives. One in ten women is experiencing abuse during any given year. Violence Against Women Survey. 1993, Statistics Canada: Ottawa. 26 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
Thus, in an average year in Canada, it is estimated that about 200,000 women are threatened, slapped, kicked, punched, choked, beaten, or sexually assaulted by their partners. 27 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
Over 2.6 million Canadian women have experienced physical or sexual assault. Johnson, H. (1996) Dangerous Domains: Violence Against Women In Canada 28 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
More than twice as many women as men reported being beaten 5 times as many women as men reported being choked Almost twice as many women as men reported having a gun or knife used against them More than 6 times as many women as men reported being sexually assaulted 1999 General Social Survey on Spousal Violence - Canada 29 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
98% of sexual assaults and 86% of violent crimes are committed by men Women constitute 98% of spousal violence victims of sexual assault, kidnapping or hostage taking 80% of victims of criminal harassment are women while 90% of the accused are men 1999 General Social Survey on Spousal Violence - Canada 30 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
Women victimized in greater numbers, severity of violence greater: 65% assaulted more than once 26% assaulted more than 10 times 40 % of women compared to 13% of men physically injured as a result of the violence Women 5 times more likely than men to require medical attention as a result of the violence 1999 General Social Survey on Spousal Violence - Canada 31 Violence Against Women How Common Is It?
32 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Children and youth witness woman abuse if they see it, are used by the violent parent, hear the violence, or experience its aftermath such as the arrest or hospitalization of a parent. Edleson, J. (1999) Children’s Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence
33 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Can witness or be impacted by woman abuse by: Seeing a mother assaulted or demeaned Hearing loud conflict and violence Seeing the aftermath (e.g., injuries) Learning about what happened to a mother
34 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Can witness or be impacted by woman abuse by: Being used by an abusive parent as part of the abuse Seeing a father abuse his new partner when they visit him on weekends Being denied what is owed them for child support
35 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth May be “used” by an abusive parent by: Claiming that the children’s and/or youth’s bad behaviour is the reason for the violence Encouraging the children and/or youth to abuse the other parent Threatening violence against the children and/or their pets
36 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Engaging the child and/or youth in negative discussion about their mother Prolonged custody and access proceedings when abuser has previously shown little interest in the children Holding the children hostage or abducting them in an effort to punish the victim or gain compliance Baker, Jaffe and Moore (2001) Understanding the Effects of Domestic Violence
37 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Prevalence of children or youth who witness abuse 40% and 80% of children in families where violence against women occurs are exposed to the abuse either by seeing it or by overhearing it. 3 to 5 children or youth in every Canadian school classroom have witnessed their mother being assaulted.
38 Violence Against Women Impact on Children and Youth Those who witness physical violence to their mother usually also witness psychological abuse Between 1999 and 2004, children of approximately 34,500 BC women were exposed to woman abuse On any given day in Canada about 2500 children live with mothers in shelters for abused women
39 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach Providing women-centred services is fundamental to women’s empowerment and safety. This approach is not in conflict with a child protection approach. Recognizes women’s safety is an important factor in the safety and protection of their children.
40 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach Key Aspects: recognize and build on a woman’s strengths recognize women’s safety strategies develop a trusting and respectful relationship respect her ability to make choices within legal limits provide services that are accessible from her perspective
41 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach respect cultural diversity recognize that all forms of marginalization affect women’s experiences and may limit options counter stereotypes about violence and specific groups provide interpretation services that allow safe discussion about her experiences
42 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach support ‘solutions’ that respect and account for women’s cultural and religious values build resources with women and the larger community engage in a collaborative approach with anti- violence women’s organizations and other systems
43 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach A woman’s past may influence the way she interacts with child protection services: Removal from her family - child protection services, residential schools or foster care. Experiencing further abuse after removal. State harassment, police brutality, investigation and interrogation - particularly immigrant and refugee women, aboriginal women, poor women, women who use alcohol or drugs, and women in the sex trade.
44 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach Past experiences can lead to mistrust and fear of people in positions of power and authority This mistrust and fear should be understood in the context of women’s lives and social history.
45 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach using her experience to guide her decisions and protect her from further harm Reframe judgements: uncooperative non-compliant difficult
46 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach If a child protection worker’s intervention leads to the decision that the non-abusing woman is not able to protect her children from the abuser: Understand a woman’s reasons for returning to or remaining with an abusive partner Do not blame a woman if it appears that she has “chosen” her partner over her children Do not punish the woman by withholding access to her children
47 Violence Against Women Women-Centred Approach Continue to work with the woman to help her create a safe environment for herself and her children Develop a service plan independent of her partner, ensure that she is not treated as the perpetrator. Offer anti-violence community services* *should not be offered in a way that is coercive or punitive - e.g. a woman will be allowed access to her children if she attends mandatory counselling sessions.