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Emergency Response Presented by Geoff Mason

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1 Emergency Response Presented by Geoff Mason
Training and Radiation Safety Manager Oceaneering International Services

2 Emergency Response The ability to deal with and resolve a range of Emergency situations may be dependant upon a variety of differing factors. Location of incident Environment Other Hazards associated with the incident Severity of potential dose rates Availability of trained and experienced personnel Procedures and protocols relevant to the incident

3 Emergency Response Organisations involved in the practice of Industrial Radiography will need to develop a culture of being prepared for, and be capable of planning and carrying out these interventions, within the guidelines of the ALARP / ALARA principles Planning / Risk Assessment Procedures / Guidance documents Availability of Emergency Equipment Personnel Training Rehearsal

4 Planning The UK Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 require that Radiation Employers Carry out a ‘Risk Assessment’ prior to any work involving the use of ‘Ionising Radiation’ Where an accident / incident is reasonably foreseeable, the employer shall prepare a Contingency Plan Where appropriate, rehearse the arrangements in the plan and suitable intervals

5 Procedures / Guidance Documents
Specific Contingency plans as part of Local Rules All Oceaneering radiographers are given a copy of General Local Rules and Contingency Plans Handbook The handbook contains all current contingency plans Copies of handbook kept in Emergency Kit

6 Procedures / Guidance Documents
Contingency Plans are covered in detail during the RPS training and the Road Transport training Managers are provided with guidance and awareness during their ‘Managing the Radiation Risk’ training Oceaneering has produced a document for senior management and no-radiographic personnel entitled ‘Classification of Radiation Incidents’. This provides guidance regarding the severity of a particular radiation related incident.

7 Classification of Radiation Related Incidents
Major incident resulting in the loss of life, serious injury and potential long term effects due to radiation exposure Serious injury, potential long term effects due to excessive radiation exposure Cat II Lost or stolen sources and or containers Catastrophic incident resulting in loss of radiation containment Loss of Oceaneering control of exposure equipment and or facilities Serious breach of safety and security of radioactive materials

8 Classification of Radiation Related Incidents
Cat III Excessive exposure to radiation over and above stipulated regulatory requirements ( may be Cat I) Radiation source fails to retract safely into container/camera X-Ray set fails to switch-off/terminate after exposure Non-compliance with regulatory requirements Cat IV Poor working practice, non compliance with company procedures, and or local rules Damage to exposure equipment, no excessive radiation or risk

9 Emergency Equipment There is no defined list of equipment that must be made available for emergency situations. Different types of exposure equipment may require different types of tools and associated equipment Sentinel model requires a full emergency kit Sentinel model 959 (SCAR) – Recovery Tool and Dosimeter Sentinel model 989 (Baby SCAR) – Specific recovery kit

10 Emergency Equipment A standard Oceaneering Emergency Kit will comprise of -: 1 or 2 m long handling tongs Bags of lead shot ( minimum of 2 x 2kg bags) Bolt cutters Hack saw (full size) Emergency Pot / Container Pocket dosimeter or EPD Tarpaulin Assorted hand tools (relevant to the container type) Copy of the Local Rules and Contingency Plans Handbook

11 Personnel The only people trained to carry out source recovery (Isotope Retrieval) are the company appointed Radiation Protection Supervisors, in addition, they are generally the ‘first responder’ for most types of incident. Drivers of vehicles that are carrying Sources are trained to the Contingency Plans that are specific for transportation – as a minimum, drivers are generally a level 1 or level 2 radiographer

12 Training The initial response to most radiation safety incidents will be the Radiation Protection Supervisor (RPS). As part of his training, he will have received training and instruction on – Contingency Plans Practical Source Recovery Detached and Jammed sources Annual source recovery practice Calculations Stay Time Dose Rates Dose Assessments Shielding

13 Rehearsal Contingency rehearsals are carried out regularly.
RPS’s run through a series of contingency plan scenarios each year Unauthorised Entry to Controlled Area Practical detached source recovery Road Transport contingencies Several clients also require a practical source recovery exercise to be performed on site to demonstrate the effectiveness of the training and the contingency plans

14 Response to an Incident
**Retrieval / recovery of a detached source** With a detached source, there a various methods of recovery, each company will have a preferred method The first responder to most incidents on site will be the Radiographic crews RPS. His initial role is the make the source as safe as possible – push the source into the collimator so it is in a known position, or attenuate Ensure the barriers are manned and monitored

15 Response to an Incident
The next step is to assess the situation and identify the problem Invoke the appropriate ‘Contingency Plan’ During the assessment process Calculate a Stay Time to receive a pre-determined dose Assemble the correct Emergency equipment Prepare and wear the dosimeter Assess the environment / work location The source is at a known position within the collimator held in position by the drive cable

16 Response to an Incident
Remove or release the collimator/guide tube from the pipe or structure Retract the drive cable Ensure the floor is clear, or lay a tarpaulin down Disconnect guide tube from container Using long handling tongs, lift the collimated end of the guide tube and allow the source to fall to the ground Pick the source up with the tongs and place into emergency pot/container

17 Response to an Incident
RPS and all involved to produce a written statement, these are to be passed to the Radiation Safety Manager All TLD’s to be sent away for analysis Radiation Safety Manager will initiate a full investigation and liaise with the appropriate regulatory bodies Results of the investigation will be forwarded to the regulator and disseminated within Oceaneering

18 Radiation Incident Flowchart
Initial assessment by RPS, or the appointed person Request assistance from Radiation Safety Manager / Snr RPS No Is RPS capable of dealing with the incident Yes RPS and team deal with incident Guidance and advice given by RPA – DGSA etc RPS liaises with local management

19 Radiation Safety Manager Carry out investigation
Radiation Incident Flowchart - continued Incident reported by local manager RPS/DGSA Police EA/SEPA Radiation Safety Manager Fire Service CTSA ONR HSE PHE (TLD) Carry out investigation Produce Report Produce Bulletin


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