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Earth Science EOG Review May 20, 2014. Overview  Symbiosis  Earth’s layers  Plate Tectonics/ Pangaea  Rock Types  Law of Superposition  Fossils.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science EOG Review May 20, 2014. Overview  Symbiosis  Earth’s layers  Plate Tectonics/ Pangaea  Rock Types  Law of Superposition  Fossils."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science EOG Review May 20, 2014

2 Overview  Symbiosis  Earth’s layers  Plate Tectonics/ Pangaea  Rock Types  Law of Superposition  Fossils  Relative/Absolute Age  Evolution/Natural Selection/Adaptation  Geologic Time Scale

3 Symbiosis: Relationships between organisms  Mutualism: Both benefit (+, +) AKA cooperation  Commensalism: One benefits, the other is unaffected (+, 0)  Parasitism: One benefits, other is harmed (+, -)  Competition: 2 species fighting for the same resource (ex. sunlight, food, space, shelter, mates)

4 Practice EOG Question What happens to a population and to competition when there is a reduction of living space? A) The population expands and competition intensifies B) Competition strengthens while the population contracts C) The population increases as competition decreases D) Competition weakens and the population decreases

5 Practice EOG Question Kudzu vines grow by climbing and wrapping around trees. Trees covered by kudzu can die because they are starved of sunlight. What type of relationship exists between the trees and the kudzu growing on them? A) Competition B) Mutualism C) Parasitism D) Predator-prey

6 Earth’s Layers Lithosphere: crust and upper mantle (tectonic plates) Plates float on Asthenosphere (liquid mantle)

7 Plate Tectonics  Earth’s Lithosphere is made of moving plates  Convergent Boundary: plates push together   Divergent Boundary: plates move apart (divorce)    Transform Boundary: plates scrape sideways


9 Practice EOG Question What do earthquakes tell scientists about the history of the planet? A) Earth’s climate is continually changing B) The continents of Earth are continually moving C) Dinosaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago D) The oceans are much deeper today than millions of years ago

10 Pangaea “Supercontinent” All continents on Earth were once joined together Evidence: Same fossils on different continents; tropical plant fossils in arctic

11 3 Rock Types Sedimentary Rock Metamorphic Rock Igneous Rock Formed by pressing pieces together Where fossils are found! Formed from heat and pressure Formed from solid magma Rock Cycle: changing rocks from one type to another


13 Law of Superposition Oldest rocks on bottom, youngest on top Example of Relative Age (finding age by comparing)

14  Oldest Layer (C)  Youngest Layer (B)

15 Practice EOG Question Scientists find dinosaur fossils in the bottom rock layers of a cliff and mammal fossils in the middle rock layer of the cliff. Which could best be concluded from this evidence? A) Dinosaurs ate plants B) Dinosaurs were eaten by mammals C) Dinosaurs lived on Earth before the mammals D) Dinosaurs and mammals lived at the same time

16 FOSSILS  Remains of something once LIVING preserved in sedimentary rock (ex. Plants, animals, fish)  Transition Fossil: Shows how species has changed over time  Index Fossil: Tells us what time period a rock layer is from (ex. Trilobite)

17 Largest fossil found in Argentina! As heavy as 14 elephants, as long as 2 tractor trailers: Meet “Mr. Titanosaur”

18 Practice EOG Question 1. A scientist finds the bones of a dinosaur. What could help the scientist determine the approximate age of the dinosaur bones? A) The birds living in the area of the bones B) The weather conditions in the area of the bones C) The kinds of trees living in the area of the bones D) The index fossils in the area of the bones Extra: They are asking for approximate age – is this relative or absolute age?

19 Practice EOG Question How do scientists know that some mountains were once at the bottom of an ocean? A) Freshwater rivers flow to the ocean B) Saltwater fish are found in some mountain streams C) Dinosaur bones have been discovered in the mountains D) Marine fossils have been found on the peaks of some mountains

20 Determining Age Relative Age  Determines age by comparing  Ex. “This rock layer is older than this rock layer” Absolute Age  Tells us EXACT age  Uses “carbon dating” – measures how

21 Carbon Dating Video  Carbon Dating Youtube Video Carbon Dating Youtube Video

22 Geologic Time Scale Timeline of the history of the Earth Organized by Eras and Periods Can use fossils and ice cores to see changes

23 Natural Selection and Adaptation  Charles Darwin: Galapagos Islands, Iguanas & Finches  Natural Selection: Survival of the fittest!  Those best able to survive, will survive and reproduce  If you can’t survive in your environment, you DIE!  Adaptation: When a species changes a behavior to better survive in their environment

24 Extinctions If an organism can’t change or adapt with their environment, they become extinct and die. Dinosaur extinction: 1. Either asteroid or volcano 2. Sky fills with ash, blocking the sun. 3. Earth temp dropped, killed many species. 4. Then the dust settled, and greenhouse gases brought temps back up.

25 Practice EOG Question What process is most responsible for the extinction of most species of plants and animals that have lived on earth? A) Gene mutation B) Environmental changes C) Selective breeding D) Decrease in reproduction

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