1. In which stage of the rock cycle shown would you predict the formation of fossils? Stage N
2. Why are the edges of Rock sample 4 smooth? The rock tumbled in a river
3. What conclusion is supported by the diagram? All rocks can change into other types of rocks.
4. Which diagram shows how the sample will settle? Sample C
5. What happens in location 3 of the diagram? Heating and pressure
6. Which of these is the best indication that Massachusetts climate has changed over time? Glacial deposit
7. What does the evidence suggest? The 2 continents were once joined as part of a larger continent
8. Which process explains the formation of these volcanoes? subducting of one plate under the other causing melting of the lower plate
9. As the magnitude increases, the distance that tremors will be felt….. INCREASES
10. What is supported by the fossil record? Group D has been in existence the longest
11. How could tropical plants have grown in Antarctica? At one time, Antarctica was located closer to the equator.
12. When did a major extinction event most likely occur? At the end of the PERMIAN period
13. Which of the following rock layers is most likely the youngest? A) the layer containing trilobites B) the layer containing fishes C) the layer containing amphibians D) the layer containing dinosaurs
14. Index fossils help scientists estimate the age of a rock because index fossil species only existed for a relatively short time. What happened to the species that are now used as index fossils? A) They became extinct B) They changed their diets C) They hid in marine sediments D) They migrated to new environments
15a. Which hypothesis is supported by the fossil evidence? A) The older reptile species went extinct because sea levels rose and flooded its habitat. B) The older reptile species went extinct because a predator was introduced into the environment. C) The older reptile species went extinct because it could not compete with the younger reptile species. D) The older reptile species went extinct because a volcanic eruption caused the environment to change.
15b. What is superposition? The Law of Superposition states that the bottom layer, in undisturbed rock, is the OLDEST layer
16. How is relative age different from actual age? Relative dating is used to determine the order of events and the relative age of rocks by examining the position of the rocks in a sequence. Actual age or dating is a method to determine the age in years of rock or other object.
17. Which is more likely to fossilize: clam or jellyfish? Why? The hard shell of a clam is more likely to fossilize because it is more resistant to biological and environmental destruction. For this reason, teeth, bones and other hard parts of organisms are much more numerous in the fossil record than soft tissues.
18. Why is a quick burial helpful in the fossilization process? Rapid burial protects a dead organism from destruction by biological and environmental factors.
19. In what type of rock would you most likely find fossils? Why? Sedimentary rock is made up of layers of hardened sediments that accumulate over time. The sediments protect the remains of organisms from biological or environmental destruction. Fossils are unlikely to survive the heat and pressure involved in the formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
20. Why is it difficult for an organism living in the rainforest to become a fossil? It is difficult for an organism living in a rain forest to become fossilized. The large amount of rain throughout the year causes rapid decay of dead organisms. Also, many scavengers and decomposers work quickly to break down the tissues and structures of rain forest life.
21. What is the outermost layer of earth? The CRUST
22. What evidence did Wegener find that supports the hypothesis that the Earth’s continents were once joined in a single land mass? 1. Climate evidence 2. Fossil Evidence 3. Rock Evidence 4. Fit of the continents
23. What is the plate tectonics theory? A scientific theory that describes the large- scale motions of Earth's lithosphere.
24. The Earth’s continents are constantly moving due to the motions of what? Tectonic plates
25. What are the 3 types of plate boundaries? Convergent Divergent Transform
26. What is a subduction zone? The point where 2 crustal plates converge and the less dense plate is forced upward and the more dense plate slides under it. As the lower plate slides into the subduction zone, it begins to melt.
27. Where an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, why does the oceanic crust get pulled under the continental crust? Because oceanic crust is MORE dense than continental crust
28. Why do earthquakes occur at subduction zones? This is not a smooth process, so it can increase pressure and when that energy is released, it can cause earthquakes
29. At transform boundaries, the plates can become “stuck”. What happens when the plates suddenly become “unstuck”? A large amount of energy is released in the form of an earthquake.
30. What is a tsunami? Japanese word for: A water wave triggered by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or landslide