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Science Olympiad Fossils Division B 2015 8 – Types of Rock.

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Presentation on theme: "Science Olympiad Fossils Division B 2015 8 – Types of Rock."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science Olympiad Fossils Division B 2015 8 – Types of Rock

2 Review Last Week’s Test Results First Item

3 Fossils in the News Feathered Fossils Give Scaly Dinosaurs a Makeover Date: ??? Source: National Geographic feathers-flight-archaeology-science / feathers-flight-archaeology-science / Summary: At a recent Berlin conference, scientists celebrated continuing revelations from the most famous feathered dinosaur, Archaeopteryx, in the city where the most complete specimen resides. Long considered the "first bird," it lived 150 million years ago and sparked the notion that birds are the living remnants of the dinosaur line, intriguing even Darwin. But new finds have confirmed that feathers started long before Archaeopteryx first flapped its wings. ART: SAMANTHA WELKER. SOURCE: OLIVER W. M. RAUHUT

4 Rocks ?? What is it good for?

5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock forms from particles, called sediment, that are worn off other rocks. The particles are sand, silt, and clay. Sand has the largest particles while clay has the smallest. If there are a lot of pebbles mixed with the sand, it is called gravel. The sediment gets turned into rock by being buried and compacted by pressure from the weight above it. Another way it becomes rock is from being cemented together by material that has been dissolved in water. Often, both cementing and compaction take place together. From Website:

6 Types of Sedimentary Rocks Fossils are found in sedimentary rocks most of the time. Sometimes fossils can be found under volcanic ash or even preserved under a lava flow, but this is very rare. NOTE: Sedimentary rocks do not always have fossils in them. Layers are a characteristic of sedimentary rocks. The bottom layers are naturally the oldest. Some types of rocks found in the layers: Limestone, mainly calcium carbonate, common in warm, shallow seas, often has fossils. Shale is a fine grained rock formed from silt and clays. It preserves fossils well. Sandstone is widespread in desert deposits and on shallow water sediments. Ripple marks and Mud cracks are characteristics of many sedimentary rocks formed in shallow waters. Ripple marks are common in shale. Mud cracks are form when mud drys quickly. These imply the presence of sunlight, water and moderate temperature conditions related to the possibilities of life. From website:

7 Limestone Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Most limestone is composed of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, and as a chemical feedstock From Website:

8 What is Limestone? Limestone-Forming Environment – Marine Most limestones form in shallow, calm, warm marine waters. That type of environment is where organisms capable of forming calcium carbonate shells and skeletons can easily extract the needed ingredients from ocean water. When these animals die their shell and skeletal debris accumulate as a sediment that might be lithified into limestone. Their waste products can also contribute to the sediment mass. Limestones formed from this type of sediment are biological sedimentary rocks. Their biological origin is often revealed in the rock by the presence of fossils.fossils From Website:

9 What is Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles that we commonly call "mud". This composition places shale in a category of sedimentary rocks known as "mudstones". Shale is distinguished from other mudstones because it is fissile and laminated. "Laminated" means that the rock is made up of many thin layers. "Fissile" means that the rock readily splits into thin pieces along the laminations. Uses of Shalesedimentary rock Some shales have special properties that make them important resources. Black shales contain organic material that sometimes breaks down to form natural gas or oil. Other shales can be crushed and mixed with water to produce clays that can be made into a variety of useful objects. From Website: Shale: Shale breaks into thin pieces with sharp edges. It occurs in a wide range of colors that include: red, brown, green, gray, and black. It is the most common sedimentary rock and is found in sedimentary basins worldwide.

10 Questions ?

11 Next Week’s Topics? Review Flash Cards

12 1.Divide the work between team members 2.Check each others work 3.Work on the fossils assign to your team 4.Use the sample flash cards posted to the schools Science Olympiad web site under the Fossil event. Sample Files are: 1.FlashCardsFusulinidsNummulites.ppt 2.FlashCardsHemichordataMucrospirifer.pptx 5.Save your flash card files using this name: 1.FlashCardsName of FossileName of Fossil Example is: FlashCardsFusulinidsNummulites.ppt For Fossil pictures start with these 3 files loaded on the school Science Olympiad web site 2009-Fossil-Poster.pdf 2009-Fossil-Notes-B.pdf 2009-Fossil-Notes-B2.pdf Another good source is: Web Site: Flash Cards Instructions

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